Depending on the manifestations of perseverations, doctors distinguish motor and mental (intellectual) types of disorders. 
Motor perseverations are a constant repetition of the same movement, or a whole bunch of repetitive movements. Such actions have a certain algorithm that remains unchanged for a long time. For example, with vain attempts to turn on the TV, a person begins to bang on it with his fist. Such an action does not lead to anything, but, realizing this, a person repeats it over and over again. Children may have another manifestation: the child is purposefully looking for a toy where it cannot be.
Intellectual perseverations reveal themselves to be abnormal "getting stuck" of ideas, statements, and conclusions. They are manifested by the constant repetition of words or phrases. Such a pathology is relatively easy to detect: the doctor asks a series of questions, and the person answers everything using the very first answer. Mild forms of disorder also occur, in which the patient regularly tries to discuss a long-decided issue or topic of conversation.
The types of motor perseverations are subdivided according to the following principle:
- elementary perseverations consist in the repetition of any one action;
- systemic perseverations involve the repetition of a whole complex of actions by a person.
Speech perseverative violation, which is manifested by the reproduction of the same word (phrase), both oral and written, is placed in a separate category.
In general, motor, they are also motor perseverations, are caused by damage to the motor brain regions. Patients have multiple repetitions of elements of any movement or action.
Perseveration of thinking
This type of violation is characterized by "jamming" in the human mind of a certain thought or any idea, often manifested in the process of verbal communication. With the same word or phrase, the patient can answer almost any request or question, even not related to each other. It is possible to pronounce certain words aloud without any direction (talking to oneself). One of the characteristic features of mental perseverations: a person constantly tries to return to a long-closed conversational topic, speaks about issues that are no longer relevant. The second name for mental perseverations is intellectual.
Paraphasia and perseveration
Paraphasia is a speech disorder when the correct words or letters are replaced by others, inappropriate and incomprehensible for a particular moment. A person suffering from paraphasia speaks unnaturally, his speech is incorrect, often contains non-existent words. In addition, speech can not only be distorted, but also speed up or slow down, which makes it even more difficult to understand from the outside. Violation is often accompanied by the fusion of words, their incorrect use and confusion, perseverations. The main causes of pathology are head injuries, circulatory disorders in the brain, severe infections with cerebral complications, thromboembolism, tumor and cystic processes of the brain, aneurysm opening. The pathology treatment strategy is individual.
Perseveration in aphasia
Perseverations are also characteristic of amnestic aphasia . The patient names the first object shown to him, after which he calls all other objects in the same terms. For example, at the sight of a teapot, a patient may say: "This is for water, for boiling, so that you can drink later." After that, he is shown scissors, and he says: "This is a teapot to cut, I had one."
It is noteworthy that the patients themselves do not notice perseverations in themselves, if the analyzer of speech perception is simultaneously affected, which happens with sensory-motor aphasia.
Within the limits of aphasia syndrome, perseverations act as a kind of structural element, therefore they persist for a long time, even with the disappearance of basic aphatic signs. Violations are also noted against the background of non-focal organic cerebral pathologies - for example, in patients with cerebral atherosclerosis, oligophrenia .
Perseverate letters or words
Perseverations in writing or oral represent the reproduction of the letter or syllable just written or said instead of the following necessary. Example: behind the knot - instead of around the corner; oily - instead of animals. 
A specific distortion of the phonetic composition of words can appear in both oral and written speech, and bears the character of progressive and regressive assisillation.
Perseveration of syllables or letters is one of the variants of motor perseverative disorders, since it consists in reproducing physical activity - for example, writing words. 
But perseveration in speech therapy is a persistent letter confusion that reduces the overall quality of speech. The child has a kind of "stuck" letters - more often consonants, by the type of replacement in a word. Examples of speech therapy perceptual symptoms:
- in one word or phrase: "dodoga" instead of "road", "under the post" instead of "under the bridge", etc.;
- against the background of weakened differentiation inhibition: "played" played, "told" said, "rich budi" rich people.
It is possible that contamination can also be recorded at the same time - mixing of syllables and parts of words - for example, "dogazin" combining a house + a store.
Like contamination, perseveration refers to frequent violations of the syllabic structure in childhood. 
Perseveration and verbigeration
The term perseveration takes its origin from the Latin word persever tio, meaning perseverance, perseverance. In the speech process, the symptom manifests itself in the form of repeated reproduction of the same sounds, words, phrases.
The patient's consciousness is, as it were, "inhibited" by one word or thought, which leads to their repeated and monotonous repetition. At the same time, repetitions usually have nothing to do with the topic of the conversation or with the situation. A similar violation can manifest itself in writing, as it is a consequence of the association of activities. It cannot be compared with obsessive phenomena, since such include an element of obsession, and the person himself consciously perceives the incorrectness of his actions. 
Along with perseverations, verbigerations are often found in schizophrenia. We are talking about mental problems, in which the patient resoundingly and monotonously repeats the same syllables, words, phrases. But such repetitions are automatic, devoid of content, and can last for several hours or even days.
The patient, with a certain rhythm, and sometimes in rhyme, pronounces sound combinations or words that are completely devoid of meaning. It is important to distinguish verbigeration from perseverative manifestations, since in the last episodes of repetitions are associated with the neuropsychic state of a person and are eliminated with the normalization of this state.
A feature of verbigeration is that a person repeats interjections and sounds without signs of affect. Pronunciation is usually accompanied by active mimicry and motor disorders. In most cases, the problem occurs in patients with dementia and catatonic schizophrenia. 
Perseveration and situational behavior
In the course of growing up, a child is necessarily faced with a fact that plays an important role in the development of his mental activity. Observing the world around him, he notices the regularity of certain phenomena: for example, if mom takes shoes out of the closet, then there will be a walk, and if she puts the plates on the table, then a meal follows. Children do not immediately realize this or that connection between phenomena: at first, they emphasize the usual chain of consequences. The onset of one event entails the expectation of the next. This sequence does not always indicate the interdependence of phenomena, but gives rise to the practical experience of the baby, who begins to observe the changes taking place in his own and in the environment.
It is important to understand that we are not talking about automatic repetitions of the same events in the same sequence, but about the changes that take place in the child's environment as a result of any actions.
If the usual sequence is violated, then it attracts the child's attention, causes misunderstanding, gives rise to the need for clarification. How should children feel in such a situation? This is a feeling of surprise, curiosity, incomprehensibility. If the violation of the usual order is perceived by the child painfully (the baby constantly returns everything to its place, despite the explanations of adults), then one should think about the presence of certain perseverative problems.
Perseverations and stereotypes
Stereotypes mean the tendency to repeat the same actions. Possible stereotypical repetition of individual words, or stereotypical thinking (looping).
Stereotyping processes also differ in the degree of automation. For example, verbigeration - stereotypical manifestations in the colloquial speech of patients with schizophrenia - are characterized by meaningless, automated, unconscious repetition of the same words or phrases. Motor or hallucinatory stereotypes are also considered automatic. Hallucinations often appear against a background of insufficiently clear consciousness - for example, in acute poisoning or infections. Mental stereotypes are more arbitrary, but in this situation, the leading role belongs to states of mental automatism.
Stereotypes are not perseverations. With perseverations, an already completed action, in whole or in part, falls into the next action, into a new task that is completely unrelated to the previous one. For stereotypes, the loss of the meaning of activity (mental, motor, speech) is characteristic, without connection with the solution of any problem. The ability to capture the relationship of stereotypical turns (mental or speech) is lost.
Stereotypes are of a long-term nature, without changing under the influence of a change in activity. Perseverations, on the other hand, depend on the degree of complexity of the subsequent task, they manifest themselves more easily, they have in common with the previous activity. Unlike stereotypes, the patient tries to counteract perseverations.
Stereotypes are not unique to schizophrenia. They are also diagnosed with organic psychosis.
Perseveration and anticipation
Some speech disorders are considered phonological, or those that relate to the sound linguistic structure. The most common phonological disorders are perseveration and anticipation (anticipation).
During perseverations, sounds from the first word fall into subsequent words - for example, “snowy suzhnob” instead of “snowdrift”, “bolova hurts” instead of “headache”.
If we talk about anticipations, then we are talking about the processes opposite to perseverations. For example, a person mistakenly names a sound from any subsequent word:
- the sun is shining on itself (instead of "in the sky");
- I will erase the series (instead of "watch the series").
In the perseverative version, it can be assumed that the person was simply confused and accidentally uttered a sound from the previous word, although this is not so.
Echopraxia and perseveration
Echopraxia, echokinesia or echokinesis is the so-called echo symptom, in which there is an involuntary repetition or imitation of any motor acts, gestures, body positions, etc. For most cases of echopraxia, repetitions of relatively simple movements performed in front of a person are characteristic. This can be applause, squinting your eyes, or waving your hands. The defeat of the convexital prefrontal cortex in front of the premotor zones is accompanied by prefrontal apraxia with echopraxic symptoms.
These symptoms are usually referred to as tic disorders. These are observed in autism, Tourette's syndrome , schizophrenia (mainly of the catatonic type), with phenylpyruvic oligophrenia, Pick's disease , clinical depression and other neuropathologies. The catatonic type of schizophrenia, in addition to echopraxia, can be accompanied by echolalia (speech repetitions for others) and echo (mimic repetitions for others). 
Experts call perseverations behavioral disorders, while repetitions can relate to almost any actions, phrases, movements, questions, requests, etc. Does not switch to the next, but repeats, which does not allow achieving the original goal.
The tendency to perseverative acts is used at different stages of socialization of children suffering from efferent motor alalia and autism - pathologies with multilevel dysfunctions of the frontal cortex. The competent application of this trend helps to effectively consolidate relationships in childhood. Thus, in some cases, behavioral perseverations can act not as a pathological obstacle, but also as an ally in corrective work. 
They say about oculomotor perseverations when a person has a "looping" gaze on a previous subject. It is not always possible to immediately answer the question of the pathological origin of such a symptom, however, in many patients, mental and cognitive disorders may precede movement disorders.
To make a diagnosis, it is recommended:
- assess whether a person has possible cognitive impairments;
- assess the presence of mental disorders;
- will clarify information about the stability of the nervous system, about the absence of neurological and systemic diseases.
Cognitive impairment is assessed using specific neuropsychological tests. Mental disorders are most often manifested by anxiety and / or depression. In addition, patients may experience irritability, mood instability, apathy, aggression, mental and / or motor perseverations, obsessive-compulsive disorders, less often psychoses. The final diagnosis is established based on the data of diagnostic studies.
Perseveration in schizophrenia
It is quite common to observe perseveration in patients with schizophrenia . Such violations cover a wide range of speech manifestations. In this case, perseverations in speech can be individual sounds and words, fragments of phrases, full speech turns. Many experts associate the occurrence of perseverations in schizophrenics with a depletion of ideas and a tendency to fill the formed mental gaps with previous ideas. In the pathogenetic aspect, an important role is played by the strengthening of the automation of intellectual-speech activity.
Schizophrenic disorders in general are accompanied by disorders of thinking and perception, inadequate or decreased affect. In most cases, patients remain clear and mentally alert, although certain cognitive problems may develop over the years.
In schizophrenia, fundamental functions are affected that give normal people a sense of their own individuality, purposefulness. Auditory hallucinations, explanatory delusions, and impaired perception of colors or sounds are often noted. Thinking becomes indistinct, indistinct and discontinuous, and speech becomes incomprehensible. Catatonic disturbances are possible.