Climax is a natural age in the life of not only women, but also men. This physiological period, as a rule, lasts three to five years. Male menopause manifests much later (at the age of 55-60 years), passes with little or no symptoms, but lasts longer. The pathological climax is characterized by pronounced symptoms that interfere with the normal life of a woman or a man.
Causes of the pathological menopause
The ovaries stop developing the follicles, so the eggs no longer ripen and do not ovulate. Intrasecretory activity decreases. Ovaries decrease in size, as their follicles are replaced by a connective tissue.
The amount of some hormones (gonadotropic) increases, which leads to a decrease in the amount of estrogens. The amount of estrogenic hormones decreases due to the predominance of estrone and the cessation of the synthesis of estradiol. It is the estrogens that affect the mammary glands, uterus, vagina, bladder, urethra, brain cells, bones, arteries, skin, mucous membranes in the body. It is their deficit that forms the clinical picture of the pathological climax.
To date, there are three main types of menopause:
In women, usually, this period occurs in the 45-47-year-old age. If we talk about the early menopause, it usually comes in 40 years, and later - after fifty-five. Too early the pathological menopause occurs for various reasons, but most often it is heredity, infectious diseases, nervous thinning, heavy physical labor, abnormal ovarian function.
The menopause period is a difficult time in the life of almost every woman, as it is often accompanied by nervous disorders, depressive states and poor sleep.
Symptoms of the pathological menopause
In many patients, the menopause passes smoothly, without any unpleasant symptoms, but some manifest the so-called "climatic syndrome". It is a pathological course of menopause. During this period, depressive conditions worsen (especially in autumn and winter), which are usually associated with lack of sunlight, hypovitaminosis and fatigue.
The most unpleasant symptom of menopause is hot flashes. They can last from half a minute to five minutes and appear at any time of the day or night. First, a woman feels a strong fever in the upper body, the skin can blush first in the chest area, and then on the arms and shoulders. Then there is a strong sensation of cold and sweating. Such tides are considered a consequence of disturbances in the activity of the autonomic nervous system.
Another unpleasant symptom that often appears during menopause is uterine bleeding. They can cause anemic syndrome. Such blood loss can be caused by imbalance of hormones.
In the mammary glands, because of hormonal disorders, unpleasant, often painful, sensations can arise. Small nodules may appear, which eventually disappear and appear again.
Women often have a headache, migraines develop, and dizziness also appears. In some women, osteoporosis may develop, due to the development of hypocalcemia. There may also be urogenital problems. They are caused by the loss of the vagina and urinary tract elasticity, dryness of the mucosa. With laughter or cough, urinary incontinence may occur.
At a menopause the arterial blood pressure constantly raises. This can cause nausea with vomiting, frequent dizziness and weakness.
The earliest signs of a pathological climax include the following symptoms:
Vasomotor signs - headache, hot flashes, severe sweating, increased palpitations, arrhythmias, increased blood pressure, chills.
Mental and emotional signs - a feeling of anxiety, depression, drowsiness or insomnia, increased irritability, forgetfulness, inattention, decreased self-esteem.
The first signs during menopause always capture the first two years of postmenopause and premenopause. To improve their own condition, women often turn to a therapist or neurologist.
Complications and consequences
Estrogens are very important hormones in the human body. They improve the functional activity of the heart and blood vessels, the nervous system, the liver, the skin, bones, bladder, and female organs.
Due to a decrease in the number of these hormones during menopause, women stop menstruating, and the risk of developing osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease (including acute myocardial infarction) increases. Also, a metabolic disorder occurs, which leads to rapid weight gain. The skin becomes less elastic and elastic.
Diagnostics of the pathological menopause
First of all, the diagnosis of the pathological climax is based on complaints that have been received from patients, especially if they have already entered the age of the menopause or are close to it. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the onset of exacerbation of certain concomitant diseases, especially with atypical course. If a woman has comorbid illnesses, she should seek help from a neurologist, gynecologist, cardiologist or endocrinologist.
To make a correct diagnosis, a specialist can conduct laboratory tests to determine hormones in the blood serum (luteinizing and follicle-stimulating). To clarify the state of internal genital organs, the doctor can perform a histological analysis. In this case, scraping is taken from the endometrium and a swab from the vagina. A basal temperature plot is also constructed.
When a woman enters the menopause, from now on, she must visit the doctor at least once a year. This will allow diagnosing severe gynecological diseases at the initial stage.
If the patient has a pronounced dryness of the vagina, she is prescribed a popular hormonal remedy. They help to solve not only those problems that are associated with menopause, but also the general well-being of women. Thanks to taking medications with estrogens, it is possible to prevent osteoporosis, vascular and heart problems, which often worsen during menopause. Recently, subcutaneous administration of hormones (proterogenes and estrogen) has been used.
Despite the quite positive effect of hormone therapy, you should not abuse it. It can lead to serious consequences and complications, up to the development of cancerous tumors. Estrogen can be replaced with vitamin E, which helps prevent the destruction of sex hormones.
If a woman is diagnosed with a lack of nutrients, this can adversely affect the work of the adrenal glands. In this case, it is necessary to appoint vitamin complexes with vitamins B3, B2, B6 and B12.
It is very important to constantly receive a sufficient amount of calcium, so as not to destroy the bones and teeth. It is recommended to use a variety of medicinal herbs, which also help to calm nerves. Physiotherapeutic procedures can also be prescribed: hydrotherapy, mud therapy, massage.
For today in drugstores it is possible to find a huge quantity of preparations which are intended for removal of the basic signs of a pathological menopause. Among them are the following drugs.
Estroel. Novelty among phytopreparations for the treatment of menopause. Helps to eliminate the deficiency of estrogenic hormones and reduce the amount of hot flashes. Also, the remedy helps to correct the emotional and psychological state of the patient, reduce the risk of developing cancerous tumors, improve immunity, and prevent osteoporosis.
The drug contains the following active ingredients: soy extract, cymicifug racemoma, indole-3-carbinol, wild maize root, folic acid, vitamins B6 and E, amino acids.
It takes one or two tablets in 24 hours. The therapy lasts no less than two months.
Bonisan. BAA, which is actively used by women during menopause. The preparation contains an extract of soy isoflavones. Due to this, it helps to improve the appearance of the skin, ease the course of the main symptoms of menopause, prevent the development of heart disease and osteoporosis.
Bonisan takes one capsule once every 24 hours. The duration of therapy does not exceed a month. Repeatedly you can take a week after the end of the first course. Do not use more often than twice a year.
Inoklim. Phytogenesis with estrogen-like action. Helps reduce the intensity and frequency of symptoms of menopause. Also improves the general condition of the patient and removes insomnia.
The medicine contains soy beans, fish gelatin, soy lecithin, sunflower oil, soybean oil, glycerin, corn starch, iron oxide, titanium dioxide.
Take one or two capsules in 24 hours. The duration of therapy is at least three months.
Climadinone. A popular phytopreparation that is used to improve a patient's condition during menopause makes the tides not so strong and frequent, eliminates estrogen deficiency.
The drug contains the active ingredient of ricicose cymicifugi extract. A remedy is used once every 24 hours (always always drink it at the same time) for 30 drops or one tablet. The course is quite long (three months). The patient should be supervised by a qualified doctor at this time.
Alternative treatment and herbal treatment
Droplet water is often used to relieve the symptoms of pathological menopause. It helps not only to get rid of insomnia, but also to reduce the number of tides. Take three tablespoons of dill seeds (dry) and pour boiling water. Infuse the broth for one hour. Then dilute it with water to make one liter. Drink after a meal of 100 ml three to four times in 24 hours. The course lasts for up to four weeks.
With climax, a red clover, which includes phytoestrogens, is considered a popular medicinal plant. To make a tincture based on this plant, you need to take two tablespoons of dried red clover and pour into a glass of boiling water. Infused decoction until eight o'clock, and then filtered. Drink a quarter cup every 24 hours before eating.
Helps to weaken the symptoms of pathological menopause and royal jelly. To unpleasant symptoms disappeared, you need to take 20 grams of flower pollen every day with honey.
With strong tides, special herbal tea will help: take two tablespoons of dry oregano and place in a thermos with two glasses of boiling water. Insist four hours and drink three times a day until the symptoms disappear.
With climax, freshly squeezed juices from carrots, celery, parsley, spinach, kiwi, cucumbers, beets are excellent.
To overcome the main symptoms (hot flashes, sweating, dizziness) of menopause helps tincture from the peony.
Homeopathic remedies are also actively used in menopause.
Climaxan. Helps to eliminate the deficiency of estrogenic hormones, and also strengthens the patient's body.
In the preparation there are such active components: lachezis, cymicifugia ratsimosa, honey bee. Drink five granules of the drug twice every 24 hours, fifteen minutes before meals. The duration of the course is not less than one and not more than two months. You can repeat it if necessary four weeks after the end of the course.
Climakt-Hel. Helps prevent the development of osteoporosis, and also reduces the strength of tides. The preparation contains the following active components: Canadian sanguine, ignition, sepia, zedron, lachezis, sulfur, tin metal.
At the beginning of the menopause, when there are tides, immediately take 1 tablet. Do not exceed the maximum daily dose (15 tablets). As soon as the condition improves, drink one tablet two to three times in 24 hours.
Remens. A popular homeopathic remedy that eliminates the deficiency of estrogen hormones, reduces the strength and frequency of hot flashes, improves overall well-being.
In the preparation there are such active components: Canadian sanguine, cimicifugica ratsimosa, sepia, pilocarpus and lachesis.
Ten drops or one tablet is taken three times every 24 hours. Take at least six months to get a positive result.
To prevent early pathological menopause, hormone substitution therapy is used, but it must be done only under the careful supervision of a specialist, since it has many side effects and contraindications. The most common side effects with such therapy are: uterine bleeding, weight gain, increased blood pressure, increased risk of developing malignant tumors.
An alternative and safer variant of prevention is the use of various phytopreparations. It is important that the remedy be prescribed by a doctor.
For the prevention of menopause, you must carefully monitor your health: to eat right, exercise, often to be outdoors.
If you follow all the recommendations that the attending physician gave you, then the symptoms of menopause go away very quickly and do not bother the patient any more. With properly selected treatment of possible concomitant diseases and osteoporosis, the prognosis is also favorable.
Last update: 25.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Every woman, not paying attention to what she already is for forty-five, feels herself in this period of time full of energy, cheerful, young and beautiful. But, when the skin became saggy, flabby, wrinkles became more noticeable, the hair thinner, thinner and faded, the weight is growing rapidly, even if the nutrition is correct, menstrual cycles are not regular - signs of menopause.