In metabolic diseases, any of the corneal layers can be involved in the pathological process.
Pathology of the epithelium
The epithelium of the cornea can be stained with toxic substances or be involved in the pathological process with certain metabolic disorders.
- Chloroquine diphosphate and hydroxychlorine sulfate are ring-shaped opacities.
- Amiodarone - characteristic curls, gentle point clouding.
These are subepithelial linear opacities, having a radial direction and located in the upper half of the cornea. Frequent satellites of enteropathic acrodermatitis. These changes are characterized by a whorled form. The process can be complicated by keratomalacia.
Symptoms of general pathology include nail dystrophy, digestive system disorders that cause diarrhea and slow growth of the baby.
As a therapeutic measure, a diet enriched with zinc is prescribed.
With cystinosis, there is a disruption of the transport function of lysosomes and the deposition of cysteine in them. Crystals of cysteine, accumulating in the anterior sections of the stroma, cause a thickening of the cornea, a disorder of its sensitivity, the development of surface point keratopathy and recurrent erosions.
The accompanying cystinositis pathology includes developmental delay, kidney disease, depigmentation of hair and skin, pigment retinopathy. Emerging in early childhood, cystinosis leads to kidney failure and early death. Developing in adults, the disease does not affect the kidneys and is limited to corneal manifestations. Debuting in adolescents, cystinosis in clinical manifestations resembles an infantile form, but with no delay in development and changes in skin.
Cysteamine is highly effective. With a significant decrease in vision, continuous keratoplasty is indicated.
Wilson's disease (Wilson) is a hereditary disease with a disorder of copper metabolism. With this pathology, the level of protein transporting copper is reduced in serum, but increased in tissues. Apparently, the pathological gene is similar to the Menkes gene and is localized in the 3ql4.3 zone. The disorder often manifests itself by staining the Descemet's membrane at the periphery of the cornea, especially intense at 12 and 6 hours.
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