Any disease is much easier and more important to prevent than treat. Prevention of human papilloma virus is based on a healthy lifestyle and strengthening of immunity. It is the immune system that plays a decisive role in the appearance of HPV infection. With a weakening of protective forces, the body weakens, creating a favorable background for infectious lesions.
Prevention of papillomatosis and other diseases is reduced to such simple rules:
- Healthy lifestyle.
- Lack of bad habits.
- Proper balanced nutrition.
- Secured sex and a regular partner.
- Absence of stress and other emotional shocks.
- Timely treatment of any diseases.
- Regular preventive examinations at the doctor.
The above recommendations relate to the prevention of the first level. To prevent the infection of HPV with high carcinogenic risk, there are special vaccines. They contain viral proteins-antigens, under the influence of which the body produces specific antibodies that contribute to the destruction of the infection when it occurs.
There are also secondary preventive measures, which include: visual and cytological screening to detect a virus and monitor the dynamics of its development. If the results of these tests are positive, the patient is assigned a comprehensive set of diagnostic tests. Typically, this PCR, biopsy, colposcopy and a number of other methods.
Tertiary prophylaxis is performed when HPV infection of high oncogenic risk is infected. The patient should take a smear every six months for a cytology within three years after infection. If the results are negative, the test is taken once a year for life.
Vaccination against human papillomavirus
One of the methods of preventing papillomatosis is vaccination. Vaccination against the papilloma virus is used to prevent the infection of HPV with a high carcinogenic risk - it's 16 and 18 type. Vaccination is advisable to be carried out until the first sexual contacts, that is, in adolescence from 16 to 23 years.
It should be noted that if the virus is already present in the body, then the effect of the injection is zero. But many scientists believe that the introduction of a vaccine to already infected patients facilitates the course of the virus and speeds up the recovery process.
Vaccination involves the inoculation with one of these drugs:
An adsorbed recombinant vaccine for the prevention of diseases caused by the human papillomavirus. It contains a mixture of virus-like particles of strain 16 and 18. The effectiveness of the drug is based on its adjuvant system. Provides cross-protection of the body against any manifestation of HPV, which can be detected cytologically.
When the full vaccination is carried out on a special schedule, the drug promotes the formation of specific antibodies to the virus in the body. Immunoglobulins are detected in 100% of patients who underwent a course of inoculation.
- Indications for use: prevention of cervical cancer in patients 10-25 years old, prevention of acute and chronic infections associated with Human papillomavirus, as well as cellular pathologies involving the development of flat atypical cells of unknown etiology, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and precancerous conditions in patients 10-25 years.
- Method of administration: the vaccine is administered to the deltoid muscle region. Intravenous and intradermal administration is contraindicated. Before vaccination, an organoleptic control of the preparation should be carried out and shaken thoroughly to obtain an opaque white suspension. The drug is administered in three stages with a single dose of 0.5 ml. At primary grafting the schedule of 0-1-6 month adheres.
- Side effects: pain at the injection site, increased fatigue, dizziness, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and the musculoskeletal system, skin allergic reactions. There is also a risk of anaphylactic reactions.
- Contraindications: hypersensitivity to vaccine components, acute hyperthermia, relapses of chronic diseases. With special care, grafting should be carried out with thrombocytopenia and disorders of the blood coagulation system. The vaccine is not suitable for treating existing lesions caused by HPV types 16 and 18. Cervarix injections during pregnancy and lactation are not carried out. There have been no cases of overdose.
The vaccine is produced in a syringe with a single dosage. Store the drug should be in the refrigerator for three years from the date it was manufactured.
- Gardasil e Gardasil 9
The drug Gardasil is an antigenic set of papillomaviruses 6, 11, 16 and 18 types. Promotes the activation of the immune system for the formation of antiviral antibodies and immunological protection of the body. Gardasil® 9 is a 9-valent recombinant human papillomavirus vaccine. It is active against such strains of infection: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58. Both inoculations provide cross-protection against genotypes that are not present in the preparation: 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 59.
- Indications for use: prevention of infection with Human papillomavirus, prevention of cancer and precancerous conditions of the cervix, vulva, anus, penis. Recommended for vaccination of patients from 9 to 45 years.
- Method of application: the vial with the solution is shaken and checked for absence of foreign inclusions. The solution is typed into a syringe and injected intramuscularly into the delta of the shoulder or the anterolateral region of the thigh. After the procedure, the patient should be under medical supervision for 30 minutes. Injections are carried out according to specially designed schemes. The standard scheme is 0-2-6 months, accelerated 0-1-4 months.
- Side effects: itching, swelling and tenderness at the injection site, headaches, fever, fainting, anaphylaxis, inflammation in the pelvic organs, thromboembolism, urticaria, gastroenteritis and others. In the case of an overdose, the severity of the above reactions increases.
- Contraindications: intolerance of active components, violation of blood coagulability, pregnancy and lactation, treatment with anticoagulants.
Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are available as a suspension in vials with a dosage of 0.5 ml each.
The vaccines described above are certified and passed all necessary checks. The vaccination is carried out in the conditions of the dispensary in compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics.
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Using a condom to prevent HPV infection
The main way to transmit HPV is unprotected sex with an infected person. Clinical studies have established that the use of a condom for the prevention of papillomavirus is highly effective. With this method of contraception, infection occurs in about 30% of cases. The risk of infection during sex without using a condom is 90%. Transmission of HPV through a condom often occurs after anal sex, but not vaginal.
Also it should be taken into account that pathogens are present in all biological fluids of the human body: saliva, mucus, etc. Therefore, if one of the partners on the mucosa of the oral cavity has growths characteristic of the disease, infection is possible not only with oral sex, but also with a kiss.
As for sex during the treatment of papillomatosis, intimacy is possible after destructive methods of sanitizing papillomas, condylomas or warts and after a course of antiviral treatment to suppress infection activity. In this case, sex should only be with the use of barrier contraception to prevent repeated relapses or infection of the partner.