Normal children's urine is a transparent liquid of yellow color of different shades - from light yellow to amber, depending on the amount of liquid used the day before. On a hot day, after active games, physical activity accompanied by increased sweating, or after a night's sleep, urine has a more intense color. Its color is quite light if the child has drunk a lot of water. Parents know this very well. Therefore, when the child's urine acquires an unusually dark color, this causes quite understandable anxiety.
Causes of the dark urine in the child
Color change in children's urine can occur for quite innocuous reasons, for example, from the use of salad with beets or other products containing bright pigments. Such color transformations usually do not cause concern. The child feels well, parents, usually in the course of his diet, and the color is restored quickly enough.
The color of this physiological fluid can affect the intake of vitamin preparations and medications. The orange or red shade of the isolated urine can be observed from the intake of anti-emetic medications of fluorophenazine, mesoridazine and other drugs of this series, the anti-tuberculosis antibiotic rifampicin, metronidazole, ibuprofen (the active ingredient of the modern children's antipyretic agent Nurofen ), some other drugs and multivitamin-mineral complexes. A brownish shade of urine can cause medications for malaria and some laxatives. However, the drug therapy in the child also does not pass without the participation of parents, so consider the cases when the darkening of children's urine is a sign that can not be left without attention.
Insufficient fluid intake is an innocent enough and easily removable cause, however, it is not necessary to ignore it. It is necessary to make sure that the child uses enough fluids, especially pure water. Dehydration of the body in infants and young children occurs quickly enough, most often during fever, vomiting, or diarrhea caused by a viral infection.
The cause of the dirty-red color of urine may be myoglobinuria caused by trauma (burn, compression, carbon monoxide poisoning), not associated with trauma - progressive muscular dystrophy or disintegration of muscle tissue due to severe purulent infections.
Other causes of changes in the color of urine (hepatitis B and C, melanoma, acquired hemolytic anemia, cholelithiasis, urolithiasis, cancers) are much less common in childhood.
Risk factors for significant darkening of the urine in a child are inflammatory liver diseases (hepatitis), and kidneys (glomerulonephritis), tumor and calculous formations in the urinary organs and gall bladder, hemolytic anemia.
The pathogenesis of urine darkening depends on the cause that caused this phenomenon - when dehydrated, its saturated and dark color is provided by a high concentration of urochrome, with inflammation of the liver, malignant pancreas tumor, gallstones - by the presence of excessive bilirubin (the pigment formed with the destruction of erythrocytes ).
At other pathologies in urine there are different coloring substances - erythrocytes, hemoglobin, myoglobin, melanin and others.
Statistics of the diseases that cause this symptom is diverse. The most common cause of causing darkening of urine can be called dehydration due to high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea, physical overexertion, severe sweating.
Hepatitis A is quite common, with the virus most susceptible to children between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Infection occurs by fecal-oral route (disease of dirty hands). Every year, according to the World Health Organization, about 1.4 million people worldwide fall ill with hepatitis A, among them most often appear children from three to six years. A significant number of cases, as studies show, are ill without significant symptoms, and these cases remain unregistered.
Acute glomerulonephritis also very often develops in children as a complication of a streptococcal infection of impetigo or angina (scarlet fever), otitis, tonsillitis. The most susceptible to the development of pyelonephritis are children aged three to seven years.
The change in color of this physiological fluid does not always mean that the child is not healthy. Careful parents are well aware of how its color varies depending on the baby's diet. Such color changes are not long-term and depend on the amount and color of the foods eaten. It is necessary for the child to change a diet and some times to urinate - again all in norm or rate. The color of the physiological fluid can acquire saturation (dark yellow, sometimes with an orange tint) during the intake of vitamin preparations, which include vitamins of group B, retinol, ascorbic acid, medicines, for example, furagin. However, there are no other changes in the child's condition.
If the urine of the child is dark yellow, does not lighten, but, on the contrary, becomes more saturated, it may be the first signs of dehydration (dehydration) of the child's body. This color indicates a high concentration of urine in the urine. This condition occurs quickly enough, especially in young children, in extreme heat, at high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea, can be observed with renal and cardiac internal swelling, when the body loses a lot of fluid, not compensating for its intake. It is necessary to pay attention to the amount of urination in the child. At dehydration of an average degree the child urinates less than three times within days and at urine there is a sharp smell. For this state is characterized by a small number of tears, parched mouth, sunken eyes and decreased activity, the child often asks to drink or eat. Anomalous stimulation and irritability can be observed. In infants - sunken fontanel and dry diapers. With significant dehydration, breathing and pulse become more frequent, weakness and drowsiness are observed. If symptoms of dehydration increase, it is necessary to seek medical help sooner. In a child, dark urine and temperature are most likely in dehydration caused by viral and bacterial infections, poisonings accompanied by frequent vomiting and diarrhea.
Dark urine in a child of 2, 3, 4, 5 years may be caused by infection with the hepatitis A virus (Botkin's disease). Clinical symptoms of the disease are marked intoxication, enlargement of the liver and spleen, in most cases - yellowing of the skin and sclera of the eyes. The disease can be conditionally divided into three periods:
dystonia - most often occurs with catarrhal phenomena and high fever (influenza-like), but in combination with dyspeptic symptoms; less often - with severe dyspepsia, especially after eating, pains, bitterness in the mouth (catarrhal symptoms are absent), atypical course - with manifestations of severe fatigue, sleep disorders, apathy or irritability and other asthenovegetative manifestations;
jaundice - the temperature normalizes, respiratory manifestations disappear, but dyspepsia (nausea, vomiting) and asthenovegetative (dizziness, general weakness) intensify, first appears dark brown urine in the child, foaming with shaking, a little later becomes feces which becomes grayish-white, yellow skin sclera and skin, itching itch;
recovery and recovery of normal functioning of the body after the disease.
Botkin's disease can develop and rapidly, bypassing the pre-egg period. In this case, immediately noticeable yellowness sclera and skin, dark urine and light feces in the child. In forms B and C of viral hepatitis, urine and feces also change color, because the disease disrupts the liver. These forms are extremely rare in young children.
At preschool age and in younger schoolchildren, a dark and cloudy urine in a child can often be caused by the development of acute glomerulonephritis. The main visually noticeable symptoms of this disease are edema, a significant decrease in the amount of urine released, dark urine with sediment in a child whose color resembles rust. In addition, the child complains of a headache, tenderness in the zone just below the waist. There may be vomiting, weakness, dizziness. Inflammation of the kidneys is usually manifested by the presence of blood and proteins in the urine (rust and sediment), small swelling and minor malaise.
In infancy, hepatitis A and glomerulonephritis are practically not found.
Many parents are concerned when a child has dark urine in the morning. If, then, during the day, the color of urine becomes normal, it is clear and without visible sediment, then there is nothing to worry about. It only says that at night the child is fast asleep, does not drink, and if the temperature of the air in the bedroom is above 20 ℃, then the child is still sweating. Therefore, in the morning, the dark yellow color of the excreted physiological fluid indicates a high concentration of urochrome in it.
If the dark urine of the child, appearing in the morning, remains dark and throughout the day, after analyzing its diet and possible drug therapy, carefully examine the child's condition. Pathological causes of the appearance of urine unusual dark color is usually not limited to one symptom, but if it does not disappear, you should show the child to the doctor.
Very dark urine in the child (almost black) can be caused by a rare hereditary disease alkaptonuria (in the world this pathology affects one in 25 thousand people). This disease is diagnosed almost immediately in a newborn child on black stains on diapers.
In black, urine is colored in patients with melanoma, but this type of skin cancer in children is almost never found.
Dark brown color of urine can be observed with hemolytic anemia. Most anemic syndromes are hereditary, then they manifest themselves at an early age. But there are also acquired. This is a group of diseases that lead to the breakdown of red blood cells. The liver does not cope with the utilization of bilirubin, intoxication occurs. Symptoms include weakness, pale skin and mucous membranes, dizziness and headache, dyspepsia in the form of nausea, vomiting, discomfort in the abdomen. The liver and spleen increase, the color of urine changes. There may be violations of the heart - faster pulse, noise, shortness of breath. A relatively common pathology from this group of diseases is hereditary microspherocytosis, which usually manifests itself early enough, however, the disease acquires a pronounced character at school age. Children differ pallor, yellow skin, they have enlarged spleen.
Stones and even less often - tumors in the urinary (bile-excreting) organs, too, can sometimes occur in children. Urine is usually brown with a brownish tinge.
At the child the dark orange urine can appear at reception metronidazola which to children appoint in case of a lambliasis, sulfanilamidnyh preparations, phytopreparations on the basis of bearberry. Reddish brown urine is released when poisoned by phenols, mercury vapor, copper.
Diarrhea and dark urine in a child testifies to intestinal or enteroviral infection, and a dark urine in a child at high temperature can be a symptom of Botkin's disease or dehydration.
The sharp smell of darkened urine is most likely in kidney disease. Urine in this case is turbid, with precipitation. The smell intensifies and when dehydrated. The use of sweet carbonated drinks can also lead to an unusual smell, as is drug therapy with certain drugs - in these cases it will resemble the smell of a drink, vitamins or medications taken by a child.
The reasons for the appearance of an unusual color of urine can be many. We considered the most probable. In any case, it is possible to find out the true cause only by performing a series of diagnostic measures. And if the child's condition causes anxiety, it is necessary, after postponing all cases, to seek medical help.
You need to start the examination with a visit to the district pediatrician who will examine the child, find out the details of the diet and the possible intake of vitamins or drug therapy and prescribe tests. Be sure to have a general urine test and a clinical blood test. Perhaps some of the symptoms will indicate kidney disease, in which case a urinalysis can be given for Nechiporenko. If a liver disease is suspected, a biochemical blood test is administered. Bacteriological culture of urine will help to identify infection with pathogens, sometimes an analysis is made for blood cultures. An analysis can be made for rotaviruses, coproculture, electrolyte level and urea concentration in the blood. If suspected of a particular disease, appropriate tests can be assigned.
Instrumental diagnosis for complaints of darkening of urine in a child usually consists in ultrasound examination of the kidneys, bladder, liver. Other studies (x-ray, lumbar puncture) and consultations of a nephrologist, gastroenterologist, infectious disease specialist or hematologist may be necessary.
Differential diagnostics will be performed according to all the necessary studies to identify the causes that caused dehydration, differentiate hepatitis from hemolysis and mechanical jaundice, the external symptoms of which coincide, light degrees of glomerulonephritis may present some difficulties in diagnosis.
Data from careful diagnostic studies will help determine the cause of darkening of the urine in a child. And correctly and timely prescribed therapy, diet food and physical therapy will quickly bring the baby's body and color of his urine back to normal
Treatment of the dark urine in the child
Assisting with dehydration consists in restoring the water-electrolyte balance of the child's body. With light and moderate degrees of dehydration, it is necessary to give the child a very frequent drink, every three to five minutes, in small sips (you can use a clean disposable syringe without a needle).
A child younger than two years old, fit Regidron, Pedialite or Rehydralite, which are designed to restore a normal acid-base state, upset as a result of loss of salts with diarrhea and vomiting. These drugs can be bought at any pharmacy. The contents of Reggidron sachet are diluted in liter of hot boiled water, cooled and give to the child, previously mixed, in small portions (10ml per kilogram of weight per hour). Use with diarrhea after each bowel movement in small sips, with vomiting - after each attack it is necessary to take another 10 ml per kilogram of the child's weight. With a decrease in symptoms, the dosage is reduced to 5 ml per kilogram of the child's weight.
To a child who is two years old or older, you can diversify the drink with non-carbonated favorite drinks, boil transparent watery soups.
Rehydration should be carried out even if the child loses the fluid taken during vomiting.
At least four hours after the end of vomiting, the child can be offered rice, not crumbs, apples and bananas. For the usual food go gradually, a minimum - within 24 hours.
Artificial infants after consuming Pedialite adapted mixtures are diluted in an average concentration for the next 24-48 hours.
If symptoms of significant dehydration (crying without tears, drowsiness, sunken fontanel in the baby, and the appearance of blood in the stool, green vomiting, high fever and abdominal pain), it is necessary to call an ambulance and go to a hospital where he will undergo an intravenous rehydration and, may prescribe treatment for a detected infection.
When diagnosed with hepatitis A, the child must comply with bed rest during severe intoxication and diet (usually table number 5). From the diet eliminate difficult to assimilate fats, fried, smoked and pickles, canned food, marinades, spices, egg yolks. Preference is given to vegetable and dairy products.
Bilirubin intoxication is removed with copious drinking and dropwise infusions of the Glucose solution , which, moreover, helps to maintain the acid-base balance in the norm, absorbing salts and citrates. With severe vomiting, drop infusions of Hemodesis are prescribed, which purifies the blood serum and detoxifies the body.
To prevent fatty liver disease and restore cell membranes of hepatocytes, as well as normalize its function, Essentiale is given in capsules or intravenous drip infusions. Essential phospholipids contained in the preparation improve ion exchange in cell membranes, restore the production of phospholipids and normalize metabolic processes in the liver. Capsules are taken first two times three times a day with food, when the positive therapeutic dynamics are achieved, they switch to the maintenance dosage - three times a day, one capsule. Intravenous injections are administered individually, depending on the severity of the disease. The side effect of taking higher doses is diarrhea.
To ensure daily cleaning of the intestine and inhibition of the development of anaerobic microorganisms, lactulose derivatives are usually used (individual dosing).
The cholestatic syndrome is relieved by the appointment of antispasmodic medications, for example, No-shpy.
When hepatitis is prescribed intake of ascorbic acid and B vitamins.
After recovery, medical examination is carried out for approximately half a year.
In acute glomerulonephritis, the child must comply with bed rest until the symptoms of the active inflammatory process disappear, after about 1.5 months, it is allowed to rise gradually even when a trace of blood in the urine is detected under the microscope.
A strict diet with the absolute exception of salt is maintained only in the period of puffiness, and protein-free diet during the period of decreased urination (oliguria) and the presence of nitrogenous compounds (azotemia) in the urine. On the second or third day from the onset of the disease, a sugar and fruit ration is organized.
In the first week, the patient is recommended penicillin preparations, for example, Augmentin is a complex antibiotic with a wide spectrum of bacteriolytic action. The second component of the drug (clavulanic acid) significantly expands the range of application of amoxicillin. Like all drugs in this group can cause various allergic reactions and contribute to the development of superinfection. It is produced both in tablet form and in liquid form (syrup, powder for suspension preparation).
Infants and young children are recommended liquid forms. Dosage 0.75 ml for a child up to three months old, over 1.25ml for up to a year, 2.5ml for a year or two, 2ml for 5ml, 7ml for 12ml - 10ml three times a day. In severe cases, the dosage can be doubled.
The volume of single intravenous injections to children aged 3 months to 12 years is calculated for each kilogram of weight by 30 mg. Introduction is carried out from six to eight times a day. Children up to three months of age - twice in 12 hours, then go to a three-time injection every eight hours, calculating the dose, as for older children.
Duration of treatment should not be more than two weeks, then - after reassessment of the patient's clinical state, adjust the dose and continue the course. When allergic to the antibiotics of the penicillin series, Clarithromycin is prescribed .
The therapeutic complex usually includes antihypertensive and diuretic drugs. Children are prescribed Nifedipine for resorption under the tongue at the rate of a daily dose of 1.0-1.5 mg per kilogram of body weight. It is divided into three or four doses and taken to a steady drop in blood pressure to normal, gradually reducing the dosage until the drug is completely discontinued.
If the drug is ineffective, a blocker of the enzymatic activity of the catalyst for the synthesis of angiotensin II (a hormone produced by the kidneys) can be assigned - Enalapril. The drug also has a slight diuretic effect. In addition to the hypotensive effect that relieves the heart muscle, the drug improves respiratory function and circulation in a small circle and in renal vessels.
The duration of antihypertensive action after a single oral intake of the drug - about a day. The drug can cause side effects from the skin and vegetovascular system, often cause dry cough, very rarely - angioedema.
Adolescents are prescribed drugs that directly block the receptors of the kidney hormone. The action is similar to the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Side effects of these drugs are very rare and do not cause a dry cough, for example, Losartan.
Diuretic drugs are included in the treatment regimen in cases of significant puffiness, oliguria, high blood pressure, angiospastic encephalopathy, symptoms of heart failure. Preference is usually given to loop diuretics, such as Furosemide, which is fast-acting, which works well both under conditions of acidification and alkalization. It can be administered to patients with impaired renal function, since it does not affect glomerular filtration. Contraindicated in the terminal phase of kidney dysfunction and in the presence of mechanical obstruction to urination. Can cause skin and gastrointestinal side reactions, promotes the excretion of potassium and increases blood sugar. It is dosed first at a rate of 1-2 mg per kilogram of the body weight of the child. If the effect decreases by the end of the week, the drug is replaced with another.
The therapeutic scheme includes vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol.
Possible chronic inflammation of the tonsils, ear, paranasal sinuses are treated with the application of appropriate techniques.
Other, less common causes of urine darkening in the child, are eliminated depending on the revealed pathological causes.
Physiotherapeutic treatment can be contraindicated in diseases that cause darkening of urine. In particular, with acute glomerulonephritis accompanied by pronounced hematuria. During the recovery period, when a large number of erythrocytes is not observed in the urine, low-frequency and pulsed magnetotherapy, magnetolaser therapy, light baths, diathermy on the kidney area can be prescribed.
Physiotherapeutic procedures for acute viral hepatitis can be prescribed to eliminate discomfort in the right hypochondrium: paraffin compresses, short-wave diathermy, galvanization of the liver region. Apply them during the recovery period.
Stones in the urinary organs are also a contraindication for most physiotherapeutic procedures.
The main drug therapy for pathological causes of urine darkening in a child with alternative medicine can not be replaced, however, it can expand the therapeutic possibilities of official methods.
With dehydration, a drink to restore the water-salt balance can be prepared at home. To do this, take a half teaspoon of salt, potassium chloride and baking soda, add to them four tablespoons of sugar. Stir this composition in a liter of boiled cool water and evaporate this solution of the baby as often as possible with small sips.
In acute viral hepatitis from the very beginning of the disease, alternative healers recommend drinking a lot - pure still water, a dog rose.
A glass is drunk after a night's sleep and an infusion of vegetable blend. It is prepared by mixing in equal parts by weight birch leaves, fruits of barberry and juniper, herb wormwood and yarrow. Pour a teaspoon of vegetable mixture with a glass of boiling water, insist half an hour.
Two tablespoons of chopped dried corn stigmas of ripe corn for 3-5 minutes, boil with two glasses of boiling water. Drink a tablespoon every three hours. Duration of treatment up to 12 months.
You can make an infusion of watermelon seeds. They need to be crushed, 40g covered in a thermos and pour boiling water in a volume of 400ml. Insist for 12 hours. Take infusion three times a day for a quarter cup.
Having woken up in the morning sick with hepatitis it is necessary to take one tablespoon of honey, mixed with fresh apple juice. The same thing needs to be done at night.
Treatment with herbs glomerulonephritis, mainly focused on alleviating the clinical course of the disease, increasing immunity and restoring the function of the kidneys during the reconvalescence. It can not in any way replace the therapy prescribed by the physician. Prescriptions for alternative medicine can be included in the treatment regimen after consultation with the doctor as an additional remedy.
Infusion of hawthorn fruit has antihypertensive and diuretic action, it is prepared by pouring one tablespoon of boiling water in a volume of 300ml and drinking before eating 1/3 cup.
In order to reduce blood pressure, it is enough to eat only a dozen berries of black chokeberry in the course of the day during the day.
With glomerulonephritis, freshly prepared carrot juice is useful (the morning portion of juice is squeezed out of 300 g of root vegetables), pumpkin (three times a day in a tablespoon), cucumber (1/2 cup per day). Juices are drunk before eating.
If the liver or gall bladder is affected by Giardia, then half a cup of brine from sauerkraut, taken three times a day before eating, will help cleanse these organs of parasites.
To get rid of kidney stones, it is recommended to drink a decoction of parsley, it is better fresh, but in winter - it is possible and dried. On 33g of parsley 800ml of boiling water is taken, poured into it and boiled for 10 minutes. This broth is filtered and drunk during the day, the procedure is repeated only three times.
Carrot juice helps to get rid of stones in the bladder, in the second half of the summer they drink juice, squeezed from the roots and leaves of parsley.
In principle, for any very rare disease, you can find alternative recipes for its treatment. The main thing - do not get carried away and combine the treatment with alternative drugs and the medication prescribed by the doctor.
Homeopathy also has a large arsenal of drugs for treating the liver, kidneys, urinary and gallbladder, and problems with these organs are most often manifested by such a symptom as a change in the color of urine. Homeopathic remedies are effective in treating children, since they do not yet have many concomitant diseases and a long list of medications taken. In addition, homeopathic dilutions almost always guarantee the absence of side effects.
With hematuria, a homeopathic doctor can prescribe Phosphorus, Belladonna and Mercurius corrosivus are used in the initial stages of acute inflammation of the kidneys. Treatment of viral hepatitis and mechanical jaundice is also effectively performed by homeopathic medicines. Assign them to a specialist, then the treatment will be qualitative.
In pharmacies there are complex means - compositions from homeopathically diluted substances, allowing to raise the immunity of one's own organism, to remove toxins and toxins, to restore the work of the organ after the illness.
For the treatment and restoration of the liver, Gepar Compositum is recommended, which contains 24 active ingredients, including vitamin B12, enzymes that activate intracellular reactions, substances of mineral and vegetable origin, and also histamine in homeopathic dilution. The medicine not only removes toxic substances from the liver, but also increases its own detoxification ability, activates metabolism, outflow of bile, binds free radicals and protects hepatocyte membranes from destruction. Eliminates the stagnation of blood in the vessels of the pelvic organs, improves blood circulation.
It is acceptable to inject this drug by any means from the first days of life every three to seven days: babies are dosed at 0.4 ml; at the age of 1-2 full years - 0,6 ml; 3-6 years - 1.1 ml; over six years of age - a whole ampoule of the drug (2.2ml). The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor.
Complex homeopathic Galium-Heel drops have an effect on the cellular level. This is one of the main drainage means of the parenchymal tissues of the kidneys, liver, muscles. It is prescribed for detoxification of the body, with dyspeptic phenomena, renal dysfunction, kidney stone disease, as a diuretic, with bleeding, exhaustion, cerebral, cardiovascular and respiratory pathologies. Contains 15 components. Side effects are not fixed. Contraindicated in case of individual sensitization.
Children 0-1 years of age recommended dose of five drops; 2-6 years - eight drops; over six are ten. For relief of acute symptoms, a single dose is taken every quarter or half an hour for one or two days. The greatest daily dosage is 150-200 drops. Duration of admission is one or two months.
Echinacea compositum CH is a complex homeopathic medicine containing 24 components.
It is shown in infectious and inflammatory processes of various genesis, including pyelitis, cystitis, glomerulonephritis, immunity decline and intoxication. Contraindicated with active tuberculosis, blood cancer, HIV infection. Possible reactions of sensitization (skin rashes and hypersalivation). In rare cases, there may be an increase in body temperature as a consequence of stimulation of immunity, which does not require the withdrawal of the drug. It is not assigned to infants.
It is acceptable to inject this drug by any means from one to three times a week: at the age of 1-2 full years, 0.6 ml is dosed; 3-5 years - 1 ml; 6-12 years old - 1.5ml; more than 12 - a whole ampoule (2.2 ml).
In severe cases, or for relief of acute conditions, injections can be given daily.
It is also acceptable to take the contents of the ampoule inside (can be diluted in a small amount of water). The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor.
In the period of reconvalescence, the functional capacity of the affected organs will be restored more quickly by Ubihinon compositum, a multicomponent homeopathic preparation that normalizes metabolic processes, is prescribed for hypoxia, enzymatic and vitamin-mineral deficiency, intoxication, exhaustion, tissue degeneration. The action is based on the activation of immune defense and restoration of the functioning of internal organs due to the components contained in the preparation. It is acceptable to inject this drug with any methods from the first days of life no more than three times during the week: at the age from birth to two years, the contents of the ampoule are divided into six parts or four parts; 2-6 years - from a quarter to half of the ampoule; over six years of age - a whole ampoule of the drug (2.2ml).
It is also acceptable to take the contents of the ampoule inside (can be diluted in a small amount of water).
If the child has dark urine, there are no direct indications for surgical treatment, however, everything depends on the causes that triggered a change in the color of urine.
The presence of stones in the urinary organs or gallbladder conservative treatment in most cases is not amenable. To date, there are no medicines that are guaranteed to dissolve calculous deposits or prevent their formation. Therefore, in exceptional cases and in childhood, operations are carried out to extract calculous deposits. Modern methods of removing stones from the bladder are less traumatic than traditional cavitary surgery.
Preference is given to remote crushing of stones by means of a shock wave, as the least traumatic method of elimination of formations.
Percutaneous suprapubic cystolitholapaxia is the operation of choice in childhood with stones located in the bladder, since it allows not to injure the urethra.
Acute glomerulonephritis in a child in the presence of chronic tonsillitis and the inability to stop hematuria within 1.5 months brings to the agenda the question of surgical intervention for the removal of tonsils.
Complications and consequences
Changing the color of children's urine can lead to negative consequences only if it is a symptom of a serious illness, and not the result of the action of dietary or drug factors.
Dehydration of severe degree can lead to death, the younger the child, the faster this process takes place.
Viral hepatitis A is complicated very rarely. Consequences of the disease can be inflammation of the biliary tract, secondary infections, for example, pneumonia.
Acute glomerulonephritis in children proceeds more rapidly than in adults, basically in a month or a half the condition is normalized, however, severe forms of the disease can be complicated by nephritic encephalopathy, uremia, heart failure, which are life threatening. Transition to chronic nephritis in childhood is unlikely (no more than 2%).
Hemolytic anemia can be complicated by anemic shock, syndrome of desensitized intravascular coagulation, other acute life-threatening conditions.
The presence of pain in the abdomen, lumbar and headaches, high fever, weakness, lack of appetite, rare urination, icterus and pruritus when a dark urine is detected in a child is a prerequisite for urgent medical attention.
Prevent pathological causes of dark urine in a child can be, observing and teaching him to follow basic rules of personal hygiene, thus reducing the risk of contracting viral hepatitis and intestinal infections.
Watch baby food and drink plenty of fluids, especially in hot weather.
In a timely manner, treat foci of acute and chronic infection, provide the child with a healthy and lively lifestyle.
Prompt medical care usually leads to the fact that the dehydration of a child's body, even a severe degree, goes without consequences.
Viral hepatitis A has a favorable prognosis, and in the majority of cases ends in complete recovery.
Acute glomerulonephritis with careful and conscientious care in childhood in most cases ends in recovery, already half a year after the onset of the disease, almost all children have no traces of blood in the urine. However, the probability of a lethal outcome still exists. It is estimated by different specialists from 1% to 5%.
Forecast of other causes that occur much less often than the above depends on the type of pathology.
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"