For the ophthalmologist, the sex of the patient who came to the doctor does not matter, therefore, the diagnosis of color blindness in women is the same as in men with the same methods. People whose work requires perfect vision are tested for color perception regularly as part of a medical examination with an ophthalmologist.
Verification of color perception can be carried out using three popular methods: spectral, electrophysiological and using pseudo-isochromatic tables (pigmented).
The spectral method involves the use of special apparatuses. Such devices include the device Ebni, the spectral anomaloscopes Nagel and Rabkin, which were developed in different periods of the XX century. In the work of this apparatus, the Rayleigh color equation is used.
The application of the pigment method is carried out using polychromatic tables, which at different times were developed by many scientists (Stilling, Ishiyar, Schaff, Fletcher together with Gamblin, Felgagen, Rabkin). Instead of tables, you can use an Edridge-Green lantern with light filters, a non-spectral anomaloscope by Demkina, the same device perfected by Rautian in 1950, and other similar instruments for studying color perception.
In our clinics, the most popular tables were the famous ophthalmologist Efim Borisovich Rabkin, the first edition of which was published in 1936, and the ninth in 1971. Rabkin developed his method for the full study of human color perception, which contains 27 basic and auxiliary tables (control, for the study of color vision in childhood, the definition of color thresholds, the rapidity of color discrimination).
Each of the main or control tables consists of points having different sizes and colors. With normal vision, a person on these tables can see certain numbers and geometric shapes. People with broken color perception either do not see the picture at all, or they see the picture in a distorted manner, as a result they can call quite different figures and figures, describe only the individual parts of the bitmap that is on the table.
Rubkin's tables are accompanied by a technique for using them, written by the author of the tables and published in 1971. Depending on what the patients see on the tables, you can draw an accurate conclusion about the variety of color blindness.
Tables show patients one by one, placing them in a vertical plane at the eye level of the patient. A series of tables are shown from a distance of half a meter-meter from 5 to 10 minutes (for studying each table only 5-7 seconds are given, in the case of an uncertain response, the show is repeated). The lighting should be within 400-500 lux (natural light or fluorescent lights that do not distort the color spectrum).
Diagnosis is performed for each eye separately. The doctor at the same time fills a special card for each patient, which makes notes on each table (plus, minus or question mark).
Using 27 basic tables, Rubkin allows you to determine with great accuracy the type and degree of color blindness, but the cause of the pathology remains hidden from the eye of the doctor. Auxiliary tables help to clarify the nuances of human visual perception (for example, visual acuity, reaction speed, etc.).