The structural elements that delimit the chest cavity consist of the chest skeleton, soft tissue, and the diaphragm. The boundaries of the chest cavity:
- ventral border - sternal segments;
- dorsal border - vertebral bodies and ribs;
- lateral borders - ribs, intercostal soft tissue, subcutaneous structure;
- the caudal border is the diaphragm.
The cranial thoracic region is bounded by the soft tissue of the ventral cervical region and the entrance to the rib cage.
During the diagnosis of these structures and organs, it is important to clearly assess the location of the pathological process. If necessary, additional x-rays should be taken from other views.
The X-ray of the fractured rib demonstrates the presence of objective signs - in particular, the fracture line, which is lighter than the bone in the image. It is also possible to change the bone structure, displacement of fragments. An indirect symptom can be a change in the adjacent soft tissues, which is also well visualized on the image - this is a darkening on the edge on X-ray, the disappearance of physiological enlightenment in the joints, thickening and thickening of the shadow of soft tissues, which is due to the formation of hematomas and edema. 
An X-ray of a rib fracture does not always show specific signs, therefore, the doctor often has to prescribe a computed tomography to the patient.
By such a violation as Lyushko's rib, they mean an abnormal development of the cartilage of the ribs, in which their anterior section is split. The violation is mainly one-sided, but it cannot be called a pathology, since it is not complicated by anything and does not in any way affect the quality of human life. 
Lushko's rib on X-ray looks like a dense formation, bifurcated in the front, usually localized near the sternum. The defect is found quite rarely (about 1% of cases).
Chondroma is a benign tumor that forms on the basis of mature cartilage tissue (mainly hyaline cartilage). The neoplasm grows and develops slowly, and is asymptomatic for a long time. The first signs begin to bother when the surrounding tissues are squeezed, when they spread to the pleura and the nerve fibers are damaged. In such situations, there is a deformation of the chest, the appearance of rib pain. A chondroma located on skeletal bones can be identified with a conventional X-ray. For example, if such a tumor is localized on the costal arch, then in the X-ray process it is possible to consider the focus of dysplasia and the cystic neoplasm itself. The chondroma of the ribs on X-ray against the background of soft tissues is invisible, since it is not radiopaque. Therefore, for other localizations of the tumor, diagnostic methods such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, as well as biopsy and microscope examination are used. 
Another congenital pathology - cervical ribs - is characterized by the presence of additional ribs in the cervical segment of the spinal column. The cervical ribs on the X-ray have the form of bony plates, symmetrically located on the sides of the spine. Normally, they are absent, and their detection allows us to speak of a developmental anomaly. Less often, such cervical elements are located only on one side.
X-ray numbering of ribs
The ribs are numbered from top to bottom: as they approach the pelvic region, these bones become softer and thinner.
The first rib is located near the clavicle, and the tenth is slightly below the xiphoid process. The body of the first seven costal pairs has a gradual transition into the cartilage tissue, then they are connected to the chest.
The first and strongest seven pairs of ribs are called true, and the eighth, ninth and tenth pair are called false ribs, since they have a cartilaginous connection between them. The eleventh and twelfth pairs are mobile, free, and are attached only on one side - to the spine.
The skeleton of an adult normally includes twelve costal pairs. It happens that in the course of development, a thirteenth pair is formed in a child, with localization at the level of the seventh or eighth cervical vertebra. Another rare anomaly is the formation of a single rudimentary rib in the cervical region.