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Types of moles on the body

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 01.06.2018
 
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Before you determine which kinds of moles exist, you need to understand: what is a mole? This benign cutaneous neoplasm, which occurs when pigmented skin cells degenerate into melanocytes. In other words, a large accumulation of melanocytes in one place - this is the very birthmark.

Birthmark can be congenital or acquired, that is, appeared after birth. For what reason there is a degeneration of ordinary cellular structures into melanocytes, it is not known for certain. The appearance of more cutaneous neoplasms during puberty and during pregnancy suggests that this phenomenon may be associated with an increase in the hormonal level in the body. Such factors as ultraviolet radiation, trauma and long-term treatment with hormonal drugs also affect the occurrence of moles.

First of all, birthmarks vary in size. They are:

  • giant (spread on the whole face, back or limb);
  • large (more than 1 dm);
  • average (up to 1 dm);
  • small (up to one and a half centimeters).

According to the location of moles in the skin layers, they are divided into:

  • epidermal (located in the upper layer of the skin);
  • intradermal (located deep in the skin);
  • border (located between the dermis and the epidermal layer).

The general classification of moles is as follows:

  • Vascular neoplasms (or so-called hemangiomas) - are convex spots of bluish, pink or red;
  • non-vascular formations are keratinized nodules, the color of which varies from light gray to dark, almost black;
  • Setton's birthmarks are benign nevuses located in the ring of unpigmented skin;
  • blue neoplasms - are dense protruding spots with a glossy bluish-blue surface;
  • dysplastic neoplasms are multiple groups of nevi that differ in diameter and shape and are transmitted genetically;
  • Lentigo is specks up to 1.2 cm in size, with torn outlines, brown or brownish-red.

In addition to the above, in dermatology and oncology it is common to divide moles into dangerous ones (which are potentially capable of being regenerated into melanoma) and non-dangerous (which have exceptionally benign prognosis).

Types of dangerous moles

Dangerous birthmarks can degenerate into a malignant tumor as a result of trauma (both mechanical and chemical or radiation), as well as due to external exposure to ultraviolet light or some cosmetic procedures.

In melanoma such neoplasms are transformed:

  • a blue birthmark is a compacted rounded node without hair follicles, up to 0.5 cm in diameter, with clearly defined edges, a bluish hue. It is located mainly on the hands and feet, in the facial and gluteal region;
  • nevus Ota is a neoplasm in the face that looks like a pigmented bluish-gray spot with a smooth surface;
  • pigmented borderline birthmark is a flat dark bulge with a glossy surface, measuring up to 1 cm, which is located on the palmar or plantar surfaces, near the nails and on the external genitalia;
  • a giant pigmented birthmark is a neoplasm with an uneven, cracked surface, a dark gray hue that grows as a person grows;
  • Duc - brile melanosis is a typical precancerous skin condition that looks like a separate pigmented spot with fuzzy boundaries and slow growth. The spot gradually darkens, acquiring a color from light brown to almost black. Usually the spot is located on the open areas of the body, in particular, on the face.

Types of malignant moles

In the world there are several classifications of malignant birthmarks. However, the most popular is the following clinical classification.

  • Surface-spreading birthmark is a spot that can develop on clean skin, or grow from other birthmarks. This formation is located on the shoulders and in the upper back or on the legs, and has the appearance of a flat bulge with blurred and irregular outlines. The surface of the birthmark has a mosaic appearance - an alternation of areas of dark and flesh colored. In the beginning of development, the surface-distributed formation increases along the plane. Later, a knot arises, which is damaged quickly enough and bleeds, passing to a new stage - an impassable ulcer with a transparent exudate.
  • Malignant lentigo is a disease characteristic of the elderly. The formation occurs in the face or neck area and has the appearance of a flattened spot of sufficiently large diameter (25-50 mm). Color - from dark brown to black.
  • Acryl lentigo is a tumor that occurs after the age of 50, mainly in men. There are subungual and palmar-plantar forms of the disease, which are dark spots, gradually turning into knots, papules and ulcerous surfaces.
  • Nodal birthmark is the most malignant type of melanoma, rapidly sprouting deep into tissues. Externally, the disease looks like a nodule or polyp almost black, with a clearly delineated border. The formations are located in the upper part of the trunk or on the limbs.

Types of red moles

Red birthmarks are called angiomas. They are distinguished depending on the degree of deepening of the neoplasm, and also on the type of vessel from which the mole is made.

  • Most often, the red mole is a capillary angioma that occurs as a result of the modification of capillary vessels. This pathology has the form of a bluish purplish or cherry spot, located in any zone of the skin.
  • Sometimes there is a cavernous hemangioma consisting of several different vessels forming the cavity. Red hemangioma rises above the skin surface, and its surface is covered by the epidermal layer. The most common localization of such a tumor is the face.
  • Another kind of red mole is branched angioma - a pulsating tumor with bloody contents. Usually such an angioma is a cluster of several common moles. When pressing a finger on a branching tumor, you can notice its blanching.

Red moles can be pointlike or arachnid (when small capillaries leave the formation).

According to the tissue structure, moles can be branched, flat, lumpy or nodular.

Types of hanging moles

Hanging moles are originally benign formations that develop from epithelial tissue and look like a small nodule or papilla, as if hanging from the surface of the skin. The surface of the hanging formations is more often tuberous, resembling the inflorescence of cauliflower; color - almost any, from light to brown.

Hanging moles are divided according to their location:

  • a hanging birthmark in the neck;
  • birthmark in the axillary zone;
  • birthmarks in the groin;
  • hanging birthmarks on other parts of the body.

Do not confuse the hanging birthmark with the tumor on the foot. Hanging moles lack an elongated ponytail, from which a rounded dangle hanging, it is this variant that is the mole on the stem. The hanging nevus has a wide base that extends directly from the surface of the skin.

Types of convex moles

Convex birthmarks develop in the deeper layer of the epidermis and have the appearance of a smooth or nodular neoplasm up to 1 cm in diameter, often with hairs growing on the surface. Shades of bulges - any, from pale yellow to dark.

Convex birthmarks can be represented by the following species:

  • epidermo-dermal birthmarks - often rise above the skin of the soles, palmar surfaces and inguinal zone;
  • complex birthmarks - represent a small or significant convexity of a dark color, localized in the epidermis and in the dermis simultaneously;
  • intradermal birthmarks are the common name of all convex moles, regardless of the color shade and location.

Neoplasm, which rises above the surface of the skin, is easiest to traumatize, so convex birthmarks can eventually transform into a malignant tumor. Because of this, it is necessary to constantly monitor the growth of the spot and record any changes in color, shape or structure.

It is rather difficult to independently determine the types of moles and the degree of their good quality. Therefore, when they appear or change, it is necessary to contact a doctor - dermatologist or surgeon, who will assess the likelihood of degeneration of education.

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