The scheme of treatment of senile dementia, as a rule, includes the use of neuroprotective agents that improve metabolic processes in the brain. If there is a relationship of dementia with other painful processes in the body, then at the first stage they are directly treated.
To normalize the cognitive function appoint calcium channel blockers - for example, Cinnarizine or nootropic drugs. If the patient has a prolonged depression, then the therapeutic scheme necessarily includes antidepressants. To ensure the protection of the brain, treatment is supplemented with disaggregants and anticoagulants.
A separate item the doctor gives advice on a healthy lifestyle. It is important to completely eliminate alcohol and cigarettes, to establish a proper and healthy diet. If possible, special attention should be paid to daily activity, making walks while practicing gymnastics in the fresh air.
Medications are prescribed primarily to eliminate or alleviate certain symptoms. If the patient has excessive unmotivated anxiety, insomnia, hallucinogenic conditions, the doctor may prescribe psychotropic medications.
For the treatment of senile dementia , the combination of Acatinol memantine with one of the drugs inhibiting acetylcholinesterase is most often used (these drugs are represented by the known rivastigmine, as well as Galantamine, Donepezil). The listed medicines are appointed indefinitely.
Improves metabolic processes in the brain, facilitates the work of the nervous system. Has a positive effect on memory and concentration, promotes the rooting of household skills. The drug is taken at 10 mg twice a day. Side effects are considered a rarity.
Acatinol memantine can be used to improve the condition of patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, with vascular and mixed form of dementia.
In the pharmacy network, this drug is represented by Alzenormom. The active component of the drug inhibits the breakdown of acetylcholine, improves its congestion in the brain structures, facilitating the transmission of nerve impulses. Rivastigmine optimizes the processes of memorization, speech and reaction speed, corrects mental and behavioral disorders. The drug is taken 1,5-6 mg twice a day, with a gradual increase in dosage.
Plaster Exelon is one of the forms of release of Rivastigmine, with a gradual transdermal intake of the active component into the body. The agent is pasted on the skin of the back, chest or forearms, changing it daily at the same time. With a pasted band-aid, you can take a shower and swim - this does not affect the properties of the drug. Exception - visiting the sauna and bath.
Other medications that are often prescribed for patients with senile dementia may include:
Cerebrolysin, which contains free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides, has a multifaceted effect on the activity of the brain. The drug protects nerve cells from damage, normalizes intracerebral metabolic processes, facilitates learning and remembering information. Cerebrolysin is administered intravenously, daily for a month. The effect of the drug is cumulative.
Actovegin by effect is similar to the previous drug. It improves the cellular transport of glucose and the flow into the tissues of oxygen. Against the background of treatment in patients with senile dementia, cognitive abilities improve, the symptoms of the disease become less pronounced. Actovegin is prescribed according to this scheme: the first 14 days the patient is injected intravenously, then the drip introduction is replaced with the tablet form of the drug.
At the stage of moderate manifestations, senile dementia is often accompanied by psychotic signs - for example, patients experience delirium, hallucinatory states, hyperexcitability of the psychomotor type. In such a situation, doctors can prescribe Haloperidol , a neuroleptic belonging to the butyrofenone group. The drug reduces the effect of excitation, eliminates behavioral disorders, eliminates aggression. The dosage of Haloperidol is determined individually, taking into account the age, the degree of manifestation of symptoms and the patient's previous reaction to taking other neuroleptic drugs.
With prolonged use of this drug, the development of tardive dyskinesia is possible. Such a state is characterized by rhythmic unconscious mobility of the tongue, jaw, face. If there is a suspicion regarding the development of tardive dyskinesia, haloperidol should be discontinued immediately.
At sensitive patients on a background of treatment there can be a subjective feeling of retardation ("stupefying"). Dizziness, headache, anxiety, sleep disturbance are also common. The decision to discontinue treatment with haloperidol in a similar situation is made only by the attending doctor.
Soothing with senile dementia
Elderly dementia is often accompanied by a deterioration in sleep, the development of depression or aggressive conditions, the appearance of hallucinations, etc. Such conditions need to be adjusted, as they worsen the patient's well-being and accelerate the course of dementia. The following preparations can be used as suitable preparations:
Phenazepam - this drug belongs to the group of benzodiazepines, and has a tranquilizing, muscle relaxant, sedative and hypnotic effect. With senile dementia, this drug is taken only according to the doctor's prescription and only in extreme cases - for an emergency withdrawal of anxiety syndrome, with a psychopathic state, etc. Phenazepam is taken once, as long-term treatment can only exacerbate the clinical picture of dementia.
Phenibut - refers to nootropic drugs and does not have a direct soothing effect. However, this drug successfully suppresses restless and anxious conditions, eliminates insomnia, prevents stressful situations, reduces emotional activity. With continued use, Phenibut improves physical and mental performance.
Thioridazine (Sonapaks) is an antipsychotic agent that possesses all neuroleptic abilities. The drug is characterized by a mild antidepressant effect, improves the selfness of the patient with neuroses, fears, anxiety attacks, sleep disorders, obsessive states. Also, Thioridazine helps with motor hyperexcitation, with depression; can be used in a mixed type of senile dementia, as well as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The drug perfectly copes with the inversion of sleep (when the patient wanders aimlessly at night, and in the daytime - asleep).
All these medicines are characterized by a powerful sedative and therapeutic effect, and they should be prescribed only by a doctor who will determine the dosage taking into account individual indices.
Of course, it is better if a person receives all the basic vitamins with food. However, this is possible if the body is young and healthy. Older people with senile dementia already have numerous health problems that can adversely affect the absorption and absorption of vitamin and mineral substances. Therefore, the elderly are better to take ready-made pharmacy multivitamin-mineral complexes.
"Alphabet 50+" consists of thirteen vitamins and nine basic mineral substances, selected in a dosage optimal for the elderly. It is recommended to take three tablets of different color daily.
Vitrum Centuri contains thirteen vitamin and seventeen mineral components. The drug is designed for the elderly and is labeled "50+". The tablet is taken daily, once a day, for 3-4 months.
"Centrum Silver" is considered a multicomponent drug, which contains more than three dozen vitamins and minerals. Regular reception of the complex inhibits the age processes, improves cognitive abilities, improves the condition of the vessels. Every day take one tablet of food, for 1-2 months.
Before choosing a multivitamin complex, it is better to get advice from a doctor beforehand. This will help to avoid an overdose, which in old age can lead to problems such as headache, nausea, impaired renal function, metabolic disorders.
In case of impaired movement, changes in muscle tone, muscular rigidity and tremor of the extremities, in the coordination disorder against the background of senile dementia, an additional non-medicamentous treatment is recommended, which includes physiotherapy, massage and physiotherapy.
Complex therapeutic exercise is the implementation of special dosage exercises aimed at stabilizing muscle tone and coordination. Systematic exercises also help to prevent the development of joint contractures.
The main exercises of exercise therapy in senile dementia are:
muscle relaxation, breathing exercises;
strengthening of motor coordination;
development of facial muscles;
Therapeutic exercise normalizes muscle tone, improves posture, eliminates tremor. Due to regular studies, the patient begins to understand and accept his physical abilities, which encourages him to continue working.
Massage procedures potentiate motor activity, improve overall health, increase blood circulation in the extremities. Each procedure should consist of several elements of stroking, warm-up, rubbing, with further vibration and displacement. Sessions are repeated once in two days, the total number of procedures - from ten to fourteen.
Methods of physiotherapy with senile dementia help improve metabolic processes and circulation, exert a reflex influence on brain functions. After the course of physiotherapy, the motor activity improves, the course of depressive states is facilitated, the mental function is optimized.
The most effective procedures are:
hydrotherapy, therapeutic baths;
muscular electrical stimulation;
Physiotherapy inhibits the progression of senile dementia, especially if there are contraindications to drug treatment.
Such a disease, like senile dementia, has been known for a long time - even before the possibility of using a full-fledged medicamentous effect appeared. Previously, the patient was relieved of suffering mainly by alternative methods, which are often used today.
A huge number of alternative treatments are based on aromatherapy - the therapeutic effect of aromas on the disease. Useful substances can penetrate into the patient's body during inhalation evaporation, during water procedures. It is allowed to simply apply the aromatic essential oil on the skin.
Aromas can both soothe, and stimulate, or excite. With senile dementia, it is preferable to use aromas with a calming effect: lemon balm, lavender, mint, etc. A special effect is massage with the addition of essential oils.
To eliminate aggression and calm the nervous system, doctors are advised to use sound therapy. Sounds are not just music. The patient is often offered to listen to bird singing, the sound of rain or the friction of the waves on the sand. If it's music, it's easy, with elements of classics. Specialists have found that in some cases, sound therapy can replace the use of sedatives.
Use of medicinal plants is one more addition from alternative medicine to the basic treatment. To date, doctors advise in senile dementia to pay attention to such herbal preparations:
Ginkgo bilobate (Biloba) is a relic plant, which often serves as the basis for the production of many drugs that normalize the work of the brain.
The root of elecampane, the fruits of hawthorn, an anise lophant - these plants are most often in demand for the treatment of atherosclerosis and high blood pressure - diseases that can cause senile dementia.
Sage is a well-known antiseptic which, when taken internally, can have a positive effect on the processes of remembering information.
Having consulted with the doctor, you can offer sick dementia and other medicinal herbs, for example:
grass of Schisandra;
fruits and leaves of blueberries;
bark and berries of mountain ash;
leaves of mint and lemon balm;
rhizome of valerian;
Along with conservative therapy, homoeopathic remedies are very effective, which only the homeopathic doctor can prescribe. Such treatment is based on the effect on the body of negligible small doses of herbal preparations. With senile dementia, you can use such means of homeopathy:
Cholesterol - besides effective normalization of cholesterol level in the blood, this drug calms the nervous system and improves the quality of sleep;
Aurum iodateum and Barium carbonicum - improve blood circulation in the brain;
Conium - normalizes cerebral circulation;
Krategug - improves the cardiovascular system and blood circulation in the brain;
Arnica - activates the blood supply to the brain.
With severe vascular disorders, you can choose such drugs as Nervocheel, Cerebrum compositum, Ubihinon compositum, Coenzyme compositum. Monopreparations are also considered effective: Ginkgo biloba, Lachezis, Gleleborus, Botrops, etc. Dosage is calculated after individual consultation of the doctor.
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"