A tailbone x-ray usually covers the sacrococcygeal area. The study is performed in a horizontal position: the patient is placed on a special couch (table). It is possible to obtain images from different positions or positions of the body, which is discussed in advance with the doctor:
- X-ray of the coccyx in a direct posterior projection is performed as follows. The patient lies on his back, bends his legs at the knee and hip joints (or only at the knees). The arms are extended along the body.
- A lateral x-ray of the coccyx is performed from a lateral position. The patient raises the upper limbs and brings them behind the head. The lower limbs are at a slight angle.
- Oblique projection is rarely used and only to clarify the functionality of a particular joint.
During the X-ray, the doctor may take one or two pictures. If there are difficulties in visualizing individual segments and joints, the doctor can refer the patient for ancillary diagnostics, for example, MRI or computed tomography. 
How is a tailbone x-ray done?
Immediately before the x-ray of the coccyx, the patient enters the office, frees himself from all metal objects and accessories (watches, chains, piercing jewelry, etc.), takes off clothes that may interfere with obtaining an image of the required area of the body.
Then the patient lies down on a special table or couch with an X-ray machine in such a way that the scanning device is over the lower back. If necessary, a specialist radiologist will correct the position and give appropriate recommendations.
During the procedure, images are taken in the required projection. If there are several such projections, then the doctor will inform the patient about the need to change the position of the torso.
As a rule, the entire diagnostic session with a tailbone x-ray takes no more than 15 minutes.
After the procedure, the radiologist develops the film, examines the picture, draws up a description and gives the results to the patient's hands or sends it to the attending doctor who previously issued the referral to the patient. In turn, the attending physician, based on the results of the diagnosis, establishes the final diagnosis and prescribes the appropriate treatment. 
What does a tailbone x-ray show?
A tailbone x-ray helps to look at traumatic injury or inflammation. Most often, with its help, the following pathologies are diagnosed:
- Coccyx hematoma is the effusion of blood in the tissue due to injury. Hemorrhage in this area, as a rule, does not resolve, therefore, minor surgical intervention may be required - first of all, to exclude the development of an inflammatory process with suppuration. A tailbone x-ray in this case helps the doctor assess the severity of the injury and the likelihood of complications.
- Sacral dislocation is a pathological deformity caused by injury to the coccyx. The main signs of pathology are considered to be pronounced external displacement, pain when probing, swelling and clicks (crunching) when trying to move.
- Coccyx fracture is one of the most difficult traumatic pathologies, which can be open or closed. With an open fracture, there is a strong pain syndrome, and a closed fracture is accompanied by symptoms of varying intensity, depending on the complexity of the injury. Often, on the x-ray of the tailbone, it is not possible to thoroughly examine the problem, so the doctor additionally prescribes computed tomography.
During the X-ray of the coccyx, other pathologies can also be detected - in particular, tumors, osteochondrosis, inflammation, hernial protrusions, etc. 
Fracture of the tailbone on x-ray
A tailbone fracture can be the result of a fall on a hard surface (asphalt, tiles, ice), or the result of a direct direct impact. Women sometimes get a tailbone injury during childbirth. It is believed that female patients are more likely to suffer from similar injuries, primarily due to the wider hips. It turns out that the tailbone in women is more vulnerable.
Fracture of the tailbone is accompanied by severe pain: it is almost impossible to sit. Hematomas can form in the lower back, and pain bothers, including during bowel movements. With slight damage, painful sensations are noted during sexual intercourse.
Fracture of the coccyx is often combined with dislocation (they say so - "fracture dislocation"), with displacement of fragments depending on the direction of the damaging force in relation to the axis of the coccyx, which becomes noticeable on x-ray. When displaced, muscles and ligaments are usually damaged.
Coccyx contusion on x-ray
It often happens that people fall and injure the lowest segment of the spine - the tailbone. This area is a series of interconnected vertebrae, which in our ancestors was nothing more than a part of the tail. Experts attribute the tailbone to one of the most vulnerable parts of the spine. That is why bruises in this area are often diagnosed in patients of any age, and especially in winter - on ice.
A small bruise of the tailbone, as such, is not displayed on the x-ray. The study is carried out in order to exclude more complex injuries of the spinal segment - in particular, a fracture (which, by the way, happens relatively rarely) or dislocation. The scale of therapeutic measures will depend on the results of the x-ray of the coccyx.
Angular deformity of the coccyx on x-ray
A severe bruise of the tailbone can be accompanied by a sharp deviation of it in the direction directly opposite to the direction of the action of the traumatic factor. In this case, the sacrococcygeal ligaments remain intact. A lighter traumatic effect is accompanied by the return of the coccygeal vertebrae immediately after the end of the influence of the damaging force.
If an extensive hematoma forms in the area of injury, then it can squeeze the surrounding tissues and nerve endings, which entails not only the appearance of pain, but also angular deformation of the coccyx. If the formation of scar tissue occurs in the specified area, then such a deformation becomes protracted (chronic), which is clearly seen on an X-ray.
With partial damage to the sacrococcygeal ligamentous apparatus against the background of a hematoma, the joint of the same name can be destabilized, as a result of which its mobility increases.