Symptoms of bursitis

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 25.06.2018

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As a rule, the symptoms of bursitis depend on the nature and extent of the inflammatory reaction in the joint bag.

The main, most characteristic symptoms we will talk about in this article.

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Symptoms of bursitis of the hip joint

The main symptom of bursitis of the hip joint is pain: it can be sharp and intense, covering the entire external femoral surface.

With the development of inflammation, the pain in the joint weakens, but spreads to the areas remote from the lesion.

When trying to move the joint soreness is greatly increased, patients can not lie down on the affected side of the thigh.

There may be dull pain, accompanied by a burning sensation in the joint. These feelings are amplified when trying to move or climb stairs.

Often the pain appears after a long stay in a sitting position.

With the development of purulent bursitis (after joining the inflammatory process of bacterial infection), the disease manifests itself with sharp sharp pains, especially with various amplitude movements with the foot. When palpating, puffiness is felt, mostly on the external parts of the thigh.

Often, patients note pain intensification at night, as well as characteristic clicks in the joint, accompanied by pain, when trying to move in the hip.

Symptoms of bursitis of the knee joint

Inflammation of the knee joint bag can occur in acute and chronic form.

The acute course of bursitis of the knee joint is determined by the presence of intolerable and acute soreness, which is greatly enhanced when trying to move the knee. A swelling appears around the joint, the feeling of which gives the patient pain. The dimensions of the edematous area range from 5 to 10 centimeters and even more. Pain becomes more expressive at night during sleep, and it is not limited to the knee area, extending to nearby joints.

A characteristic sign of bursitis of the knee can also be considered hyperemia (redness) of the skin above the joint, development of a febrile state, when the temperature rises even up to 40 ° C.

As the process worsens, puffiness spreads to nearby tissues, and the doctor discovers symptoms of the development of diffuse purulent inflammation of fatty subcutaneous tissue.

If there was no timely treatment, the acute course of the disease becomes chronic. The pain is a little dull, but does not go away completely. In the articular bag, calcinates are formed, which contributes to the appearance of swelling and interferes with full mobility in the affected joint.

During the exacerbation of the chronic course of the disease, there is an increased release of fluid into the joint cavity, which can trigger the appearance of a cyst as a hygroma.

Symptoms of the supracatellite bursitis of the knee joint

Suprapatellar bursitis occurs more often in athletes, as well as in people who have once suffered trauma to the lower extremities, in particular, the knee.

Symptoms of the supracatellite bursitis of the knee joint are quite specific. They are expressed in soreness and puffiness of the damaged knee area. You can pay attention to the reddish shade of the skin over the area of damage, the difficulty of flexing the leg in the knee. Expressed pain is observed with fast walking or running. The presence of an infectious inflammatory process in the joint can add to the symptoms an increase in body temperature. This sign can be accompanied by headache, weakness, fatigue, lethargy and chills.

However, sometimes expressed manifestations of suprapatellar bursitis of the knee joint may be absent. Patients complain of a minor soreness with prolonged walking or standing, a feeling of stiffness in the joint, a slight swelling of the knee area. Such a course of the disease is called hidden, it has great chances to go to the chronic form of bursitis.

Symptoms of bursitis of the foot

Bursitis of the foot is characterized by a feeling of fullness and pain inside the joint bag. Filling is accompanied by the appearance of swelling of the outer tissues: the diameter of the tumor can vary from 5 to 10 cm.

Simultaneously with external manifestations, there are some other symptoms:

  • pain when feeling;
  • difficulties with the turn of the foot in one direction or another, caused not by the limitation of the motor function, but by considerable soreness during movements;
  • the difficulty in putting on shoes because of the developed edema;
  • soreness in walking;
  • weakness and feeling of indisposition;
  • feverish conditions, high temperature indices.

Bursitis of the foot can occur in three forms, which have characteristic pathogens of the disease:

  • purulent form of bursitis is caused by penetration into the articular bag of pyogenic infection, which contributes to the formation of an abscess with external manifestations in the form of puffiness and redness of tissues - visible signs of the inflammatory process;
  • the gonorrheal form of bursitis differs by very pronounced pains in the joint, in particular, in the pre-patellar and calcaneal bursa;
  • The tuberculous form of bursitis affects the deeply located bursa. Serous fibrotic exudate is formed, which can be accompanied by the appearance of external fistulas.

Symptoms of calcaneal bursitis

Heel bursitis appears due to the inflammatory process of the synovial bursa, which are located in the ankle zone. The disease is determined by the painful puffiness that appeared on the site near the calcaneal hillock.

Sometimes heel bursitis is confused with the signs characteristic of the calcaneal spur. For this reason, X-rays or other diagnostic tests should be performed for the final diagnosis.

The appearance of a clinical picture of calcaneal bursitis is usually preceded by a heel injury, or excessive prolonged pressure on the heel, caused, among other things, by frequent wearing of high-heeled shoes.

An important role in the development of calcaneal bursitis is excess weight, which contributes to excessive pressure on the foot area.

Symptoms of subclavian bursitis have much in common with the inflammatory process in the heel bag, since both bursals are in close proximity to each other. Characteristic signs of heel and subclavian bursitis - this is a severe pain and swelling of the heel or the area located next to the heel joint. Normal walking, as well as trying to stand on "socks" are very painful. Especially notice the increased pain when getting out of bed on the affected foot. Because of pain, the movement of the entire ankle is limited.

Symptoms of bursitis of the big toe

Bursitis of the thumb of the foot is very common. This disease often occurs due to wearing uncomfortable or small shoes, with flat feet or weakness of the foot muscles, especially if all this is observed against the background of excess weight or a prolonged load on the foot.

The main symptoms of bursitis of the big toe are:

  • the appearance of swelling or a dense knot in the area of the base of the thumb;
  • formation of scuffs and calluses when wearing any footwear, even the one that was previously the most convenient;
  • further deformation of the joint, bend the thumb inward towards the rest of the toes.

Prolonged state of puffiness and pain in the absence of treatment can go into the formation of a purulent form of bursitis. This form is accompanied by unbearable pain and inability to move, stepping on the affected foot.

If bursitis of the thumb is not treated, the defect will remain for life, and it will hardly be possible to correct it later.

Symptoms of bursitis of the shoulder

Symptoms of bursitis of the shoulder joint are expressed in soreness, a feeling of stiffness and inconvenience when rotating with the shoulder or with the retraction of the upper limb to the back. Such signs are due to the passage of a large number of nerve fibers near the joint.

When you feel the affected shoulder, there is usually acute pain accompanied by swelling of the articular region.

Swelling adjacent to the joints of the connective tissue, resulting in paresthesia and muscle weakness of the affected limb.

The chronic course of bursitis of the shoulder does not differ markedly. Sometimes, pain can occur only when the upper limb is sidetracked to the side, or with movements aimed at rotating the shoulder joint. With time, the deltoid muscle can grow.

Often, patients notice the appearance of weakness or numbness of the upper limb, especially during sleep or rest.

The appearance of bursitis of the shoulder can be preceded by arthritis, shoulder injury, metabolic disorders (in particular, obesity), prolonged physical exertion on the shoulders.

Symptoms of elbow bursitis

As a rule, in most cases, the ulnar bursitis begins with swelling of the elbow area. Tumescence appears for no apparent reason, does not limit the motor function and may not be accompanied by painful sensations.

With the passage of time, the elbow bursa increases in volume: at this time the first pain sensations should appear. At the same time, the temperature can rise, the skin around the elbow joint turns red and pours. In moments of fever and fever, pain in the joint increases, the patient's condition worsens significantly. The symptoms of intoxication are joined: headache, dizziness, weakness and lethargy, lack of appetite, apathy.

With the increase in the size of the joint, its mobility is gradually limited, any attempt to move the arm causes pain in the elbow area.

If the inflammatory process is not treated further, it can go into a purulent form, which manifests itself in the formation of external fistulas or subcutaneous phlegmon.

Do not try to establish a diagnosis yourself. Symptoms of bursitis often have much in common with the symptoms of polyarthritis, gout, allergic arthritis, calcaneal spur and some other diseases. Therefore, at the first signs of articular pathology, keep the joint rest, if necessary, applying an immobilizing bandage, and contact a trauma unit or an orthopedic department to a good specialist for further diagnosis. The prescribed treatment should be carried out in full to prevent the development of complications and the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

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