The main symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism include:
- Prematurity (childbirth up to 38 weeks of gestation).
- Worn baby
- The delay in the discharge of meconium.
- The weight of a newborn is more than 4 kg.
- Prolonged physiological jaundice.
- Apnea during feeding.
- Muscle atony.
- Flatulence, a tendency to constipation and frequent regurgitation.
- Increased size of tongue and fontanelles.
- Dysplasia of the hip joints.
- The coldness of the skin.
- Swelling of the limbs and genitals.
- A gruff and low-set voice when weeping.
- Long and difficult healing of the navel, hernia.
Gradually, the primary form of the disease begins to progress, and the pathological symptoms increase:
- The skin is dry and compacted.
- Cloth jaundice gray.
- Myxedema (edema of the subcutaneous tissue and skin).
- Sweat removal is reduced.
- Hair and nails are atrophied.
- The voice is rough, hoarse and low.
- Delayed psychomotor development.
The symptomatology of the central forms of congenital hypothyroidism, that is, secondary and tertiary, is not clearly expressed. The disease occurs with a deficiency of other hormones (somatotropic, luteinizing, follicle-stimulating) and abnormalities in the structure of the facial skull.
Without timely treatment, acute thyroid hormone deficiency causes irreversible effects in neuropsychic development. In newborns, there is a significant lag in physical and mental development, that is, cretinism. The main symptoms of this complication include: short stature, facial abnormalities, abnormal limb development, chronic diseases, and frequent colds.
Congenital hypothyroidism in children
The main cause of congenital abnormalities of the thyroid gland is an autoimmune reaction. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a condition in which the immune system gradually destroys the thyroid gland. This is due to the activity of antibodies in the female body or due to the treatment of endocrine diseases during pregnancy.
There are also a number of factors that increase the risk of congenital hypothyroidism :
- Chromosomal diseases: Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, Shereshevsky syndrome.
- Autoimmune pathologies: diabetes mellitus, celiac disease.
- Injuries to the thyroid gland.
The disease may be asymptomatic or accompanied by such signs: yellowing of the skin and eyes, hoarse crying, poor appetite, umbilical hernia, weak muscle tone and slow bone growth, constipation, swelling of the face and a large tongue.
After birth during the first few days, all babies are checked for serious pathologies. To do this, a blood test from the heel of the baby. Blood is checked for the amount of thyroid hormones in order to determine how well it works.
Symptoms of the disease become more pronounced when the child’s age reaches 3-6 months:
- Slow growth.
- Lag in neuropsychic development.
- Disproportionate physique.
- Mucinous swelling of the eyelids.
- Thick lips, tongue and nostrils.
- Umbilical hernia.
- Deaf heart sounds and bradycardia.
- The thyroid gland is enlarged or poorly palpated.
When violations are detected, the doctor makes a course of treatment. The child is prescribed daily intake of synthetic hormones. In some cases, the body begins to work independently, if this does not happen, then the drugs are taken on a long-term basis. Congenital diseases can worsen the normal growth and development of the baby, so it is very important that the medication continued until full puberty. If you leave the pathology without treatment, it threatens with serious complications.
Congenital hypothyroidism in newborns
Medical statistics indicate that in 75-90% of cases, abnormalities in the functioning of the thyroid in newborns occur due to malformations of the organ. The weight of a baby's thyroid gland is about 2 g. Aplasia or hypoplasia forms during the prenatal period, at about 4–9 weeks of gestation. By the end of the first trimester, the fetus thyroid accumulates iodine and synthesizes thyroid hormones.
The main causes of genetic disorders are:
- Viral diseases of the mother during gestation.
- Toxic effects of drugs or chemicals.
- Impact on the body of pregnant radioactive iodine.
- Disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
Transient hypothyroidism may be part of the adaptation of the organism to new living conditions or indicate a lack of iodine. The above reasons lead to a significant decrease in thyroid hormone levels, which entails a weakening of their biological effectiveness. This is indicated by a decrease in the growth of cells and tissues. Changes affect the central nervous system.
It is difficult to determine the disease in its early stages because it has many different symptoms that parents take for the physiological condition of the infant or signs of other diseases. The characteristic symptoms of the disorder are:
- Newborns with increased body weight.
- Asphyxia during the birth process.
- Severe jaundice over 10 days.
- Decreased motor activity and sucking.
- Low body temperature.
- Constipation and flatulence.
- Swelling of the face and body.
A complex of laboratory and instrumental studies is carried out to determine the disease. The diagnosis is confirmed if the TSH in the serum exceeds 20 μED / ml. It is mandatory to differentiate anomaly with birth injuries, rickets, jaundice, Down syndrome and other disorders. Treatment is long, in severe cases, surgery may be required.