Stenosis of the cervical canal

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 25.06.2018

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Stenosis of the cervical canal is the structure of the internal throat of the cervix. Stenosis of the cervical canal can be congenital or acquired. The most common causes of acquired pathology are menopause, surgical interventions (for example, conization of the cervix, cautery), infection, cervical or uterine cancer and radiation therapy. Stenosis of the cervical canal can be complete or partial. This can lead to a hematoma (accumulation of blood in the uterus) or in patients of the pre-menopausal period - to the retrograde transfer of menstrual blood into the small pelvis causing endometriosis. A pyometra may develop (accumulation of pus in the uterus), especially in women with cervical or uterine cancer.

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Symptoms of stenosis of the cervical canal

Common symptoms of stenosis of the cervical canal in premenopausal women are amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, pathological bleeding and infertility. Patients in postmenopausal women may be asymptomatic for a long time. A hematometer or a pyometra may be the cause of the stretching and enlargement of the uterus.

Diagnosis of stenosis of the cervical canal

Diagnosis can be made on the basis of symptoms and signs or when it is not possible to obtain endocervical cells or an endometrial sample for diagnostic tests (eg, a Pap test). The diagnosis of complete stenosis is established if, when probing with a probe with a diameter of 12 mm, it is impossible to enter the uterine cavity. If cervical stenosis is the cause of uterine dysfunction, cervical cytology and an endometrial biopsy should be performed to exclude cancer. If postmenopausal women do not have data on negative Pap test data, no further examination is required.

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Treatment of stenosis of the cervical canal

Treatment of stenosis of the cervical canal is necessary in the event that there are symptoms or uterine dysfunction leading to an expansion of the cervix.

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