Poisoning with poisonous mushrooms is important in a timely manner to diagnose to prevent dangerous consequences.
Diagnosis should be as accurate as possible, and this requires professional skills and special laboratory equipment. If help is not provided on time, irreversible changes will occur in the body. To identify pathological processes will help the analysis of blood. Unfortunately, the visible symptoms of poisoning most often become noticeable when it's too late, - the liver fails or acute kidney failure occurs.
Diagnostic methods include the specification of a food history (the place of gathering or buying mushrooms, the time of consumption and the peculiarities of their culinary processing), laboratory tests of blood, feces, vomit. Usually the diagnosis "Acute mushroom poisoning" is indicated with the indication of the main pathological syndrome (for example, "acute gastroenteritis", "acute psychomotor agitation", etc.).
Diagnosis also includes the measurement of blood pressure (against the background of poisoning it decreases significantly), control over the patient's condition, which can increase the pulse, there is arrhythmia, tachycardia. With the development of acute gastroenteritis in the patient is dehydration of the body, as well as a violation of electrolyte blood.
If the liver is affected, jaundice, hepatic insufficiency, necrosis, as well as the brain is affected, kidney failure, nephropathy occurs. Unfortunately, even resuscitation is unsuccessful, and the patient dies. Most often, lethal outcome occurs when poisoning with a pale toadstool: several days of delay lead to the death of the patient.
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Poisoning with poisonous fungi requires a complete examination of the patient, which includes measuring the pulse, pressure, temperature, inspiratory speed. The doctor should establish the degree of dehydration (using a urine sample), as well as possible disruption of the kidneys.
Blood tests are necessary to determine the severity of poisoning. Rectal examination is performed to determine the integrity of the rectal walls and take a specimen of feces for the presence of blood and mucus admixtures. In addition, samples of stool and vomiting are sent to the laboratory for further testing for the detection of toxin, the causative agent of the disease.
If suspected of other diseases, CT and x-ray of the abdomen are performed. When poisoning with mushrooms is recommended to collect the remains of food - they can also come in handy for analysis.
It is very important to take the victim to the hospital as soon as possible, because on the 2-5th day after the poisoning irreversible consequences begin, in particular, damage to vital organs. From multiorgan failure, death occurs in 50-95% of cases. On the background of intoxication, it is possible to develop acute cardiovascular insufficiency, which can lead to the most severe consequences.
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Poisoning by poisonous mushrooms is diagnosed on the basis of a detailed anamnesis. Reasons are established when the victim is interviewed. Without fail it is necessary to measure the patient's body temperature, pulse, blood pressure. The doctor conducts a general examination of the patient, performs palpation of the abdomen to identify pain in the perigapic and epigastric region. Laboratory studies of feces are performed to identify microorganisms that have caused intoxication.
Instrumental diagnostics for food poisoning (including fungi) includes:
- fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy (examination of the mucosa in the upper parts of the digestive tract);
- sigmoidoscopy (assessment of the condition of the rectum);
- Colonoscopy (definition of changes in the mucosa of the large intestine);
- fluoroscopy (performed in case of acute poisoning).
The diagnostic method is prescribed by the doctor depending on the patient's condition, age, severity of intoxication, and symptoms. In cases of massive fungal poisoning by the sanitary and epidemiological service, a study is being conducted, which explains the causes of mass intoxication.
Poisoning by poisonous fungi is diagnosed by examining the patient, symptomatology, conducting studies that help determine the degree of damage to the body.
Differential diagnosis is based on pronounced manifestations of enterocolitis or gastroenteritis, diarrhea, botulism, which most often develops with the use of canned mushrooms.
When one of the most dangerous fungi is poisoned - pale toadstool, as in botulism, neurological disorders, muscle weakness, disruption of accommodation, visual disturbances, anisocoria, ptosis are observed. There is liver damage, acute gastroenteritis, severe diarrhea with an admixture of blood and mucus. Due to loss of water and salts, general weakness and thirst develop. Unfortunately, such symptomatology is manifested in severe patients and often portends a lethal outcome. In a patient who is in a coma, there may be disorders of the respiratory rhythm, development of dyspnea.
To differential-diagnostic factors of poisoning with poisonous fungi can be attributed to the rapid development of symptoms (from half an hour to a day). Poisoning with fly agarics provokes the dilatation of pupils, profuse diarrhea and strong salivation. Blood and urine, as well as vomit, bowel movements and food debris are subjected to bacteriological examination. With the help of laboratory studies, definitive confirmation of the diagnosis and determination of the type of toxin is possible.
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First aid for poisoning with poisonous mushrooms
Poisoning with poisonous fungi is fraught with serious complications, and in severe cases leads to death. Therefore, it is so important to give the victim first aid before the doctors arrive.
The first help in poisoning with poisonous mushrooms is to perform the following actions. First of all, it is necessary to induce vomiting, after thoroughly washing the stomach. Usually, a proven method is used for this purpose: it is necessary to drink 4 to 6 glasses of water in small sips (boiled, cooled to room temperature) and induce vomiting, irritating the back wall of the pharynx with a finger or a tea spoon. This procedure is recommended to repeat several times, then put the person in bed and apply warm heaters to his limbs.
Before the arrival of the "ambulance" patient can be given a warm drink (with strong weakness will help strong tea). As an absorbent, activated charcoal (1 gram per 1 kg of weight) will help. In the absence of diarrhea, it is allowed to take a mild laxative. However, with vomiting and diarrhea, taking any antiemetic and laxatives is prohibited, since these natural protective mechanisms help to remove toxins from the body.
The most important action is to call an "ambulance" or immediately deliver the victim to a medical facility. Only an experienced doctor will be able to prescribe the right treatment, since the toxins of different fungi act differently, and, accordingly, there is no universal treatment for poisoning by fungi.
Poisoning with poisonous fungi causes severe consequences, so the injured person should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible (to the intensive care unit). The doctor will examine the patient and prescribe the treatment, based on the severity of the poisoning, the patient's condition, symptoms, the results of laboratory tests, the type of poisonous fungus.
Medications used at the initial stage, when the patient has acute gastroenteritis and disorders of the cardiovascular system, are solutions of electrolytes containing magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium ions that are administered intravenously to the patient. The action of electrolytes is aimed at correcting the water-electrolyte and acid-base balance in the body.
With a significant loss of fluid, intravenous administration of various solutions (from 5 to 8 liters per day) is carried out: plasma, albumin, hemodez, neohemodez, protein, polyglucin, etc. If a patient has oliguria and anuria, saluretics are administered to stimulate diuresis, as well as lipotropic substances.
Diuresis forced will prevent detoxification. To this end, hemodialysis, hemofiltration, plasmapheresis, hemosorption, plasmosorption - blood purification methods, which significantly reduce the content of toxic substance in the blood, are also prescribed.
Of the drugs, the use of which has proved to be effective, it is possible to isolate the preparation Polysorb MP, the action of which is aimed at internal cleansing of the body. This enterosorbent will help to get rid of unpleasant symptoms and remove toxic substances from the digestive system. White coal is a modern concentrated sorbent, often used for food poisoning. The drug actively removes toxins and toxins, while leaving useful substances necessary for the body. A good antidote is atropine, which must be administered subcutaneously. The dose of this drug is prescribed by a doctor.
In severe cases, the patient may be prescribed glucocorticoids. If necessary, enter norepinephrine, mezaton, a solution of eufullin. After stabilizing the patient's condition, treatment should continue for 4-6 months to monitor the work and condition of the internal organs. A strict diet is recommended, hepatoprotective drugs are used.
Poisoning with poisonous mushrooms requires urgent action aimed at removing toxins from the body of the victim.
Alternative treatment consists, first of all, in the use of means for rinsing the stomach. The patient should drink a few glasses of warm water, in which you need to add half a teaspoon of salt. It is desirable to repeat the procedure up to 6 times. After washing the stomach, it is recommended to take adsorbents (Activated Carbon, White Coal, Smecta, Polysorb).
In the treatment of poisoning with fungi, honey is used in a dosage of 20-25 g, diluted in warm water or tea, with mint. As the adsorbent substances, you can use egg white (4-5 pieces dissolve in 1 liter of warm water), starch or kissel (dissolve in water in a 1: 10 ratio).
A well-prepared tincture of seeds of the milk thistle grass (50 g) helps a lot. Shredded seeds should be filled with vodka (0.5 liters), infused for 2 weeks, periodically shaking the container. Take 25 drops dissolved in a 0.5 glass of water, up to 5 times a day for half an hour before meals. You can take drugs that contain belladonna (belladonna): bellalgin, bolloid, bicarbon, and tincture of greenery.
Any alternative means in the form of infusions should be taken only after consultation with the doctor. Do not exceed the dosage to avoid negative consequences.
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Poisoning by poisonous fungi can be treated with herbs, which serve as antidotes and help remove toxins from the body.
Treatment with herbs when symptoms of intoxication:
- Melissa from nausea (4 tsp herbs pour 2 items of steep boiling water, insist 4 hours, drink 100 g before meals three times a day).
- Herbal mixture (mint, St. John's wort, plantain, chamomile, taken in equal proportions, are poured with 0.5 liters of boiling water, insist half an hour, you should drink the broth frequently - 1/3 cup every hour).
- Chicory (powder (1 tablespoon) it is necessary to pour 200 ml of boiling water and insist (preferably in a thermos) for 12 hours, drink 50 ml 30 minutes before meals at least 3 times a day).
- Devyasil (crushed root of the plant pour boiled water (200 ml), then insist for 20 minutes, take a decoction of 1 tablespoon before meals 5-6 times a day).
- Blackberry (a small amount of plant twigs to brew (1 tablespoon per glass of water), boil for 5 minutes and insist, the resulting broth should be filtered and drunk in small portions for an hour).
- Herbal collection (clover meadow, field horsetail, oak bark (4-5 tablespoons) - 3 tablespoons of the spoon should be brewed in 1 liter of boiled water, stand and take 0.5 cups often, up to 7 times a day ).
- Broth of dill with honey (raw materials can be different: both dry and fresh herbs, or stems of the plant): 1 tbsp. L. Raw (dill) pour 200 ml of boiling water, boil over low heat for 20 minutes. Then cool, add water to the original volume, put a tablespoon of natural honey. Drink 0.5 cup for half an hour before meals.
When poisoning is also used pharmacy tinctures of eleutherococcus and astragalus, which help expel toxins from the body. For this purpose, you can try sea microalgae (in tablets or powder).