Juices in diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2: the benefits and harm

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020

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Healthy nutrition, regular physical activity and often pharmacotherapy are key components of diabetes treatment. The position of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) is that there is no universal diet for people with diabetes. The ADA also recognizes the inherent role of diet therapy in general diabetes treatment and historically recommends that everyone with diabetes be actively involved in managing, educating and planning treatment with their doctor, which includes the joint development of an individual nutrition plan.  [1],  [2], [3]

Everyone knows that diabetes occurs on the background of insufficiency or lack of insulin production by the pancreas, which is necessary for glucose uptake. It plays an important role in human metabolism, is the main source of energy. Overcoming problems with carbohydrate metabolism is carried out by supplying cells with insulin and regulating the steady flow of carbohydrates, which is directly dependent on nutrition. Diet therapy is the main part of the treatment, so the question arises whether juices can be used for diabetes?

What juices can you drink with type 1 and 2 diabetes?

Juices are positioned by us as a useful drink, saturated with many nutrients necessary for the full functioning of the body. And this is true, because in them are concentrated all the components inherent in the fruits, of which they are made.

At the same time, easily digestible carbohydrates (sucrose, fructose), which greatly increase the level of glucose in the blood, are doubled in them. [4]How to be in this case?

On the shelves of stores a lot of packages of juices from various manufacturers, but the technology of their preparation is such that diabetics should not drink them at all. First, water is evaporated from them and the concentrate is prepared, then their recovery, pasteurization and cooling take place. In the final product that reaches the consumer, there is little useful and a lot of sugar.

Fresh juices are allowed, provided that their volume is obtained from the amount of raw materials with a low glycemic index (GI) recommended by diabetics, for example, two apples, one orange, etc. [5] Moreover, a recent study showed that consuming green leafy vegetables and fruits was associated with a lower risk of developing diabetes, while consumption of fruit juices may be associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes among women.[6]

Tomato juice

Tomatoes are a low-calorie vegetable with plenty of water and little sugar. Tomatoes are very useful in this disease, since they contain useful minerals: iron, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chromium; B vitamins, ascorbic acid; carotenes, antioxidants.

There is growing evidence that the consumption of tomatoes reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects. [7]

Juice from them, not past heat treatment, has a beneficial effect on health due to the composition:

  • the bright pigment lycopene resists diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • phytoncides resist inflammation and bacteria;
  • serotonin regulates the function of the nervous system;
  • vitamins B1, B2, C improve metabolism;
  • Calcium makes the walls of blood vessels more elastic, helps reduce pressure.

In addition, tomato juice cleanses the liver, lowers cholesterol, well nourishes. The recommended daily allowance for tomatoes for patients is 300g, and it is from this amount that a drink should be made.

Pomegranate juice

Natural pomegranate juice from ripe seed berries rich in polyphenols with high antioxidant capacity, due to which its antidiabetic properties are manifested - it regulates the glycemic index. Observing the patients, it was established that drinking high-GI food with a drink, sugar in the blood drops by a third. In limited studies in human and mouse models, it has been shown that pomegranate juice has a significant anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory effect. [8]

In addition, there are many other substances in pomegranate that can support a diabetic organism and prevent complications. It has 15 types of amino acids, its tannins are an excellent disinfectant, it fights against anemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, increases the elasticity of the vascular walls. [9]

Drink it through the tube, so as not to damage the tooth enamel. People with hyperacid gastritis, gastric ulcer, suffering from constipation, it can harm. It is important to listen to yourself and try in small portions not on an empty stomach.

Carrot juice

Everyone knows from childhood about the role of carrots on visual acuity. Due to its low energy value, low carbohydrate content, carrot juice will fit into the menu of patients with diabetes.

This drink has a beneficial effect on the immune, nervous system, slows down the absorption of glucose, improves the functioning of the digestive tract, helps to cleanse the body of toxins. A large group of vitamins B, A, K, PP, alpha- and beta-carotene, significant mineral composition is presented in the fruit. Eating carrot juice can protect the cardiovascular system by increasing overall antioxidant status and reducing lipid peroxidation, regardless of any markers of cardiovascular risk. [10]

Yet diabetics need to know when to stop, and it should not exceed 200-250ml of juice per day.

Apple juice

In nature, there are many different varieties of apples. They are divided by ripening time, degree of sweetness, hardness, juiciness and many other parameters. Acidic juicy and ripe fruits are suitable for obtaining juice useful for diabetics, and there is no need to peel them, because it contains many useful nutrients.

Freshly prepared apple juice will provide the need for vitamins A, C, B1, B2, B5, B6, folic acid, as well as iron, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium. The drink improves the condition of the skin, hair, nails, strengthens the heart muscle, blood vessels, activates the body's defenses, regulates intestinal function, removes harmful substances, increases hemoglobin.

Although apple juice usually contains less phenols than whole apples, it is still a widely consumed source of dietary antioxidants. 

The main class of phytochemicals commonly found in fruits and vegetables are flavonoids. Apples are a very important source of flavonoids in the diet of people in the US and in Europe. They are also a good source of antioxidants. Several studies have definitely associated apple consumption with a reduced risk of developing cancer, especially lung cancer,  [11] it reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases,  [12] reduces the development of asthma, and also has a positive effect on overall lung health. [13] The high content of quercetin, the main component of apple peel, reduces the risk of developing type II diabetes. [14] It has been proven that eating apples and pears contributes to weight loss in middle-aged women. [15] Part of the protective effect of an apple against cardiovascular diseases may be related to its potential ability to lower cholesterol levels. [16]

Apples, and especially apple peel, have strong antioxidant activity and can significantly inhibit the growth of liver cancer and colon cancer cells. Antioxidant activity of 100 g of apples (approximately one serving of apples) is equivalent to about 1500 mg of vitamin C. [17] In several studies, apples have been shown to have strong anti-proliferative activity.[18

Different varieties of apples have different effects on the proliferation of liver cancer cells. At a dose of 50 mg / ml, Fuji apple extracts inhibited the proliferation of Hep G2 cells by 39%, and Red Delicious extracts inhibited cell proliferation by 57%. Peeled apples were significantly less effective in suppressing the proliferation of Hep G2 cells compared to peeled apples, which suggests that the peel of an apple has significant antiproliferative activity.[19]

Recently it has been discovered that crude extracts from immature apples actually inhibit the enzymatic activity of cholera toxin in a dose-dependent manner. [20]

It should refrain from it in the acute phases of gastritis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer.

Pumpkin juice

It contains several phytocomponents belonging to the categories of alkaloids, flavonoids and palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. It has antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and other properties. [21]

Pumpkin is sweet in taste and has a high glycemic index. It would seem that this circumstance places a ban on its consumption, but it turns out that the orange fruit stimulates the production of beta cells involved in the production of its own insulin.

Pumpkin juice has a general healing effect on the organism as a whole, and in particular, it burns fat and promotes weight loss, thanks to pectins, it activates intestinal motility and accelerates cleansing from the decay products of life, reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, stimulates pancreatic functions, removes fluid from the body, is a prevention cardiovascular pathologies.

Beet Juice

The percentage of carbohydrates in beets in second place after dietary fiber (6.9% and 12.5%, respectively). This is undesirable, but on the other hand, there is a lot of silicon, chromium, manganese, cobalt in the root crop, there is potassium, vitamins C, groups B, and other useful components in small quantities.

It is recommended for low hemoglobin, for the normalization of stool, reducing pressure. But fresh beet juice also has anti-cancer properties, so diabetics do not need to completely abandon it, but only follow the measure (50 ml at a time).

Beetroot is also considered as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of a number of clinical pathologies associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Its constituents, primarily betalain pigments, exhibit strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemoprophylactic activity. The use of beets provides beneficial physiological effects that can lead to improved clinical outcomes in certain pathologies, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dementia. [22]

Beetroot juice increases the level of nitric oxide (NO), which performs many functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, as well as increased muscle contraction. These improvements in biomarkers indicate that adding beet juice may have an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory endurance. [23]

Immediately after receiving the drink, they do not drink it, but allow it to stand in the refrigerator for 1-2 hours, since there are volatile substances in it that cause nausea and vomiting.

Potato Juice

Boiled potatoes are also considered food with a high glycemic index due to the high content of fast-absorbing starch, whose long-term consumption will increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. [24]White potatoes are also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. [25]Although potatoes in cooked form are not on the list of recommended dishes for diabetes due to their high starch content, but the juice from raw tubers is a healing remedy for many diseases.

In alternative recipes, it is prescribed to patients with gastritis, ulcers, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, helps with constipation, flatulence, treats pharyngitis and sore throat. Its effects on the body of a diabetic are healthier, anti-inflammatory, with the exception of severe forms and low acidity of the stomach.

Take it in the morning on an empty stomach in the amount of a quarter cup in 2 weeks.

Jerusalem artichoke juice

Jerusalem artichoke or earth pear is a fertile product for a given endocrine disease, which practically does not require a restriction in consumption; they can be replaced by potatoes in the diet. And all thanks to inulin in it. The use of inulin does not affect the blood sugar level and stimulation of insulin secretion; therefore, it is suitable for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity and other health conditions associated with high blood sugar. [26] Inulin is considered a prebiotic, which can affect both the composition and / or the activity of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. [27]

Systemic use of Jerusalem artichoke juice reduces the load on the pancreas, increases defenses, accelerates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and gradually decreases glycemic indicators.

Before preparing the drink, the fruit is peeled, ground with a meat grinder, or rubbed on a grater, then squeezed through gauze. You can immediately prepare a glass, which is enough for the whole day, and stored in a cold place. Fifteen minutes before a meal, one third of the volume is drunk. The treatment course lasts at least a month.

Grape juice

Recently, considerable interest has been focused on biologically active phenolic compounds in grapes, since they have many biological properties, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and anti-microbial. Studies show that consuming foods rich in polyphenols improves vascular health, thereby significantly reducing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.[28]

Grapes are a sweet berry that does not meet the task of reducing sugar-containing products. His GI, depending on the variety, ranges from 40 to 60 units, which is quite a lot for such patients. Despite its usefulness to healthy people, it is best for diabetics to give up this drink.

The exception is red grapes, but it is recommended to eat no more than 12 berries a day. It is proved that dark grape juice inhibits platelet activity, has antiplatelet and antioxidant properties and improves vascular endothelium function,  [29] improves immunity in healthy middle-aged people. [30] The flavonoids found in dark grapes, in particular, Concorde, are powerful antioxidants that can protect against oxidative stress and reduce the risk of damage by free radicals and chronic diseases. [31]

Cabbage juice

Cabbage juice is a famous healer of the digestive tract pathologies. And he owes this reputation to the many nutrients the body needs, including rare vitamin U, which is the source of the amino acid methionine, an excellent defender against toxins and free radicals. Vitamin U prevents the development of histamine-induced peptic ulcers.[32]

Red cabbage, among various vegetables, is one of the main sources of anthocyanins, is known for its protective role against oxidative stress of the heart and liver, and has cholesterol-lowering, neuroprotective, nephroprotective and hepatoprotective activity. [33],  [34]Reduces oxidative stress and increases the expression of endothelial NO synthase in blood vessels, providing vascular homeostasis. [35]

In addition, without this vitamin B4 (choline) is not synthesized - the hepatoprotector, a substance that improves brain activity, the lack of which causes liver obesity, increases "bad" cholesterol, hypertension occurs, fatigue accumulates, irritability manifests itself. Proved chemoprophylactic activity of cabbage against breast cancer. [36]

In diabetes, cabbage juice is also useful in that it lowers blood sugar, has a diuretic effect, fights against constipation, promotes healing of wounds.

Drink freshly prepared juice before meals for 20-30 minutes, three times a day, 200 ml each time. It is not suitable for people suffering from colitis, spasms of the biliary tract and intestines. Fermented cabbage juice can be a useful drink for vegetarians and consumers who are allergic to lactose. [37]

Burdock juice

Burdock (burdock) - a common weed in our area, therefore, it will be no problem to improve your health with the help of the juice of its giant leaves in the summer season. More habitually, its use in cosmetology, women use roots to strengthen and beauty hair. 

Pharmacologically it was found that burdock has hepatoprotective, desmutagenny, antibacterial, gastroprotective, antihypoglycemic, antihypolypidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant action. Relieves fatigue, controls body weight, is used as an aphrodisiac. [38]

At the burdock root, antidiabetic compounds, active ingredients, antioxidants are found that help to improve blood circulation to the skin surface, improving skin condition and healing skin diseases such as eczema. In burdock seeds, active compounds are found that have an anti-inflammatory effect and a strong anti-proliferative effect. The extract of the leaves highlighted the active compounds that can inhibit the growth of microorganisms in the oral cavity. [39] Consuming tea from burdock root can affect inflammation markers and oxidative stress levels. [40]

Its positive role in diabetes is very high, especially type II, since it has the ability to reduce the level of glucose in the blood. Inulin improves pancreatic function, speeds up the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, fatty acids and oils promote skin regeneration, phytosterols lower cholesterol, tannins have antimicrobial and astringent effects, vitamin P favorably affects the peripheral circulatory system, carotene minimizes the threat of eye damage.

Juice is prepared from both leaves and roots, and you can combine them. Drink a tablespoon on an empty stomach 3 times a day. It is impossible to apply to pregnant women, during breastfeeding, to combine with diuretic drugs.

The most useful juice for diabetes

From all the above, it follows that the most useful juices in diabetes are homemade, freshly squeezed. Many diabetics share their experiences and recommend making combined formulations, including herbs: cilantro, dill, parsley, basil, celery, etc.

The so-called green smoothies have a reduced sugar level, provide with vitamins, fiber, micro-and macro elements.

Another option suitable for diabetics, the combination of fruit and vegetable juices, as a raw material for the latter, you can use cucumbers, zucchini, tomatoes, and they should prevail.

You need to experiment with different products, determining the appropriate taste, while not forgetting to control glucose.

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