The clinical picture of an elevated level of estrogen depends on the level of hormones that are maintained in the body. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish two basic concepts - relative and absolute hyperestrogenia. Absolute hyperestrogenism arises, in the final analysis, a certain pathology, when the level of hormones rises in the blood and the persistence of the yellow body of the ovary occurs, which causes clinical manifestations. Relative hyperestrogenism is a condition in which the estrogen level does not rise in the blood, but only the amount of progesterones decreases, and therefore the hyperestrogenic clinic is manifested. These two features must be known not only for treatment, but also for correct differential diagnosis of pathology.
Hyperestrogenia in women is more often manifested in older age, often after childbirth, when there is a certain failure of the hormonal background. But there can be similar violations in the teenage period in the girl, when the hormones for the first time should start acting for menstruation. This is manifested by the symptoms of premature puberty, when the secondary sexual characteristics develop before the time. However, there may be a delay in the first menstruation. This is due to the fact that for a normal menstrual cycle, a certain decrease in the estrogen level at the end of the first phase of the cycle is necessary in order for the second phase to come - then the luteinizing hormone rises. If a girl has hyperestrogenism, then the luteal phase is delayed and menstruation does not occur. Often the symptom of this pathology may be juvenile uterine bleeding. Therefore, complaints can be for prolonged menstruation or its profuse nature even before the complications of such bleeding occur.
In older women, hyperestrogenism may be the cause of the formation of benign uterine structures - fibroids or fibroids, as well as the formation of endometriosis. This is due to the fact that estrogens stimulate the growth of the myometrium and the secretion of the endometrium, and under the influence of a high level of these hormones, uneven excessive division of cells occurs. Therefore, the first signs of hyperestrogenism in women can appear with a prolonged increase in the level of these hormones, which will manifest by the clinic of myoma.
Symptoms of uterine fibroids can be diverse - bleeding, lower abdominal pain or a feeling of heaviness in the pelvis, violation of sexual intercourse, decreased libido, impaired bladder or rectum function, secondary chronic iron deficiency anemia with frequent bleeding, especially with concomitant hyperestrogenia. These symptoms often appear even with significant amounts of fibroid. There are certain features of the clinic, depending on the location and form of education. With the nodular form of uterine fibroids, clinical manifestations directly depend on the site of the node. With the formation of subserous nodules, the menstrual function is not impaired. Often there is a clinic of the acute abdomen, because such nodes are very labile in their position and can be displaced, forming a torsion or necrosis of the knee's leg. Sometimes the pains are not sharp, but stupid, aching, permanent, if the knot irritates the peritoneum or nerve endings, then there may also be a heaviness in the abdomen. If the subserous myomatous node is of considerable size, then it can cause compression syndrome of neighboring organs with difficulty of defecation with compression of the rectum, with difficulty urinating or reactivity of the bladder, and compression can disrupt the outflow of venous blood and lymph with stagnation in the pelvis and development hemorrhoids. It is not uncommon for a subserous arrangement of the fibromatous node to observe local neurological symptoms due to the compression of nervous structures with the development of disorders like paresthesias or osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine. Then it is very important to correctly diagnose pathology, and not treat these neurological disorders.
With submucous site of the node, local manifestations are more pronounced. Metroragy can be observed, especially against the backdrop of the delay of the second phase of the cycle. Often there is a trauma to such a knot. The peculiarity of the myoma clinic against the background of hyperestrogenism, which in this case is absolute, is the rapid growth of such fibroids, which requires immediate action.
Another consequence of hyperestrogenism is the development of endometriosis, since endometrial hyperplasia against the background of an increase in estriol often causes the dissemination of endometrial foci throughout the uterus and internal genital organs. In this case, the symptoms are manifested in the form of copious bleeding, which begins a few days before the expected menstruation and lasts more than a week. Such discharge is often brown, different from normal menstrual flow. This cycle is accompanied by strong pulling pains in the lower abdomen long before the appearance of menstruation. If the endometriosis is located in the ovary, then cysts are formed, which contribute to irritation of the peritoneum with the corresponding reaction. In this case, there may be severe pain syndrome, which is often accompanied by clinical manifestations of an acute abdomen.
These are the main clinical manifestations that can occur in women under the influence of hyperestrogenia.
Hyperestrogenia in men primarily causes oppression of testosterone production, and the symptoms that are observed in this case are associated with the oppression of the function of this hormone. In this case, a man has signs of gynecomastia - breast engorgement with possible milk release may be observed. There are also symptoms in the form of fat deposits on a female type, decreased sexual desire, impotence, obesity.
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