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HPV 39 type: what is it, what to do when detected?

Last reviewed by: Aleksey Portnov , medical expert, on 25.03.2019

Today, medicine has information about more than a hundred types of human papillomavirus (HPV). They are divided according to different characteristics, including the category of danger to human health. The HPV 39 type virus belongs to the most dangerous category, as it can provoke serious problems and malfunctions. Treatment of this virus is carried out only by a doctor, regularly monitoring the activity of the infection and the degree of its influence on the body.

Structure HPV 39 type

HPV viruses infect the cellular structures of the skin and mucous membranes, which are represented by keratinocytes - this is the main defense of the body against the negative influence of the external environment.

Papillomavirus (HPV) has relatively small virions that do not have a membrane membrane. Its diametral size is about 30 nm, which is 4 times less than the size of influenza viruses or HIV.

The genotype of HPV 39 is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule packed in histones, cellular proteins that participate in the formation of DNA inside the nucleus. The genome is encoded by two types of proteins:

  • E-proteins are responsible for the regulation and reproduction of cells, and are also responsible for the processes of malignancy;
  • L-proteins provide cell structure and form the capsid of virions.

The life cycle of HPV depends on the stage of keratinocyte development: the latter consists of the epidermal surface layer of the skin and the layered epithelial tissue of the mucous membrane. Intensively breeding young skin cells coat the basement membrane, which is located below the upper epidermal layer. The maturation and differentiation of them lead to the fact that keratinocytes gradually shift to the skin surface. HPV infects undifferentiated structures, with new viruses forming in keratinocytes, which are at the final stage of differentiation.

E-proteins provide the necessary content of HPV 39 DNA in the cell nucleus and control gene expression. The E1 and E2 proteins form a compound with viral DNA, with the involvement of structural replication systems.

L-proteins are necessary for the formation of capsid and viral DNA packaging. The basic structural component of the capsid of HPV is protein L1, which forms pentamers. One capsid consists of 72 pentamers, and its shape is spherical.

The minor protein substance L2 is also one of the structural components of the virus. One such protein is related to one L1 pentamer. Most likely, it is necessary in order to attract the DNA of HPV to the accumulating particles. A well-known theory is that both proteins can interact with histones that pack viral DNA.

Symptoms

HPV 39 of the type does not always reveal itself with any obvious symptoms: if a person has a strong immunity, then the virus does not multiply and there is no symptomatology. In such a situation they speak of a banal carrier of the virus of the 39th type.

If the immune system fails, then the HPV 39 type virus is activated. On the mucous membranes or skin, pointed or flat warts are formed: the latter are considered the most dangerous and can acquire a malignant course.

By genital warts imply oblong detached growths that are similar in color to healthy skin or mucous tissues. Such growths must be treated, because they are easily inflamed, damaged, and also prone to spread. The formation of condyloma is very intense: one formation can appear in just a few hours.

In HPV 39, growths are most often found on the labia, near the anus, on the mucous tissues of the vagina and uterine cervix (in female patients), and also on the glans penis and on the foreskin (in male patients).

Men most often are just carriers of HPV, since the manifestations of the disease in them are rare. In women, the symptoms are more active, the internal reproductive system may be affected.

HPV 39 in women

In female patients, signs of HPV 39 can be as follows:

  • the appearance of condylomas in the external genital organs, in the cavity of the vagina, near the anus;
  • the appearance of vaginal discharge with bloody or purulent patches (often there is a characteristic smell of "fish");
  • pain in the lower abdomen, in the lumbar spine;
  • discomfort during urination;
  • discomfort during intercourse (up to pain).

In addition, with HPV, the general signs of an inflammatory reaction in the body can be noticed: we are talking about the deterioration of the skin and hair, dizziness and nausea, weakness, and constant unmotivated fatigue.

HPV 39 in men

The HPV 39 type virus in the male body manifests itself somewhat differently. So, the presence of such signs is possible:

  • purulent mucus on the head of the penis;
  • the formation of the "plaque" reddish color in the head, with a tendency to increase;
  • discomfort during urination;
  • weakening of potency, decreased libido.

Common signs of an inflammatory reaction may also be present: drowsiness, apathy, excessive fatigue, dizziness. Recall that all of these symptoms can appear in men only when an HPV infection is activated, which occurs only in certain conditions - for example, with a sharp weakening of the immune system. Such activation in male patients is relatively rare, so in most cases only the carrier of the HPV 39 type virus occurs, without some obvious symptoms.

Diagnostics

Externally, during the examination or interview of the patient, it is impossible to determine the presence of HPV 39 virus: the symptoms of the pathology are often hidden, and the manifestations may be similar to other diseases that are sexually transmitted. The only effective method is the analysis on HPV 39 type, which can be performed using different technologies:

  • Hybrid Capture Technique (Digene HPV test, HPV DNA test).

This method determines the DNA of a viral cell and is most often used to determine the concentration of a virus and estimate the likelihood of a malignancy of the disease process. The procedure is based on the immunochemical determination of the production of nucleic acid hybridization with monoclonal antibodies.

  • PCR VPČ 39.

This is a qualitative study that helps only to answer the question whether the virus is present in the body. The method is not able to determine the quantitative content of viral cells, but it can be used to find out the genotype of the virus.

  • Biological seeding.

Biological material that is withdrawn from the patient, is sown on a special nutrient medium. This method of diagnosis is long and expensive, therefore it is used relatively rarely for detecting HPV 39.

  • Biopsy.

This method is used to exclude or confirm a malignant process.

An indirect sign of the presence of HPV 39 in the body is the presence of uterine dysplasia in a woman. Although it is not only on the basis of this sign that the diagnosis is not carried out: laboratory confirmation of the presence of HPV infection is necessary.

Treatment

If, based on the results of diagnostics, an HPV 39 type virus was detected in the body, then the doctor prescribes suitable medications and hardware procedures (if necessary). In general, treatment for HPV should consist of taking antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. In the presence of growths, the warts on the body are removed by any of the existing methods. This may be laser or radio wave removal, cryotherapy or surgery.

What if HPV 39 is detected, but there are no growths or other symptoms? In this situation, the doctor may prescribe a course of immunomodulators. In addition, a woman should regularly check her health at a gynecologist in order not to miss the moment of the development of the disease. Repeat HPV testing should be done annually. If a carrier of HPV 39 is a man, then he is also recommended to monitor the activity of the virus, to conduct regular diagnostics. Perhaps the appointment of prophylactic courses of antiviral drugs.

What drugs for internal use can advise the doctor in detecting HPV 39 type?

  • Interferon is a basic endogenous factor with antiviral and immunostimulating activity. The use of the drug in the detection of HPV type 39 begins as early as possible: carry out inhalation through the mouth or nose, using three vials of the drug for one procedure. The frequency of inhalation - twice a day, for three days.
  • Cycloferon is a drug acridoneacetic acid and N-methylglucamine, is an inducer of the formation of interferon in the body. Cycloferon with HPV 39 is taken according to an individually selected treatment regimen.
  • Prodigiozan is a nonspecific immunostimulating drug that is administered as an intramuscular injection according to an individually selected scheme.
  • Isoprinosine is an immunostimulating and antiviral drug, which is prescribed in an average dosage of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight (the dosage should be divided into three doses). The duration of therapy is from five to fifteen days, depending on the severity of the infection.

In some cases, the doctor may prescribe such medications as Fluorouracil, Podofillotoksin, Podofillin, etc., as an additional treatment for HPV 39.

Prevention HPV 39 type

There is no special drug that can rid the body of HPV 39. However, scientists have developed two types of vaccination, which helps prevent infection in the body.

The first known vaccine - Gardasil - has long been used in almost seventy countries of the world, and some countries even included it in the list of mandatory vaccinations. Gardasil is a tetravalent drug whose components are proteins similar to HPV protein substances. Such proteins are produced by yeast and do not pose a danger to humans. Initially, this vaccine provided protection against infection with HPV viruses of the sixth, eleventh, sixteenth and eighteenth types. But in practice, it was found that immunity after vaccination creates protection against other oncogenic HPV, including the 39th type, since the so-called “cross-reaction” works.

Vaccination is always only prophylactic, but not therapeutic. Doctors recommend administering the drug to patients before the onset of the sexually active period - the optimal age for vaccination can be from 9 to 26 years.

The second type of vaccine - an analogue of Gardasil - has not yet been introduced into clinical practice and remains at the registration stage.

Forecast

If the HPV 39 type virus is already present in the body, then the person will not be able to completely get rid of it: today medicine is powerless in this matter. It remains only to periodically conduct treatment-and-prophylactic courses to curb the activity of the infection.

If the virus is detected in the early stages, timely and competent treatment is a guarantee that the patient will not have dangerous complications and consequences in the form of infertility, the development of cancer. It is believed that the presence of HPV 39 in the body significantly increases the risk of the formation of malignant processes. However, this does not mean that such processes threaten absolutely all patients. If you regularly visit the doctor and monitor the activity of the virus, then dangerous states can be avoided.

Worse, when HPV type 39 does not show itself with any symptoms: such pathology is difficult to diagnose and no less difficult to treat. Since it is not possible to completely remove the infection from the body at the moment, the only correct strategy is to reduce viral activity, which reduces the risk of developing dangerous complications and improves the overall prognosis of the disease.

It is important to know!

For the treatment of papillomas and condylomas, essential oils can be used. They have a pronounced antiviral and immunostimulating effect, increase the protection of skin against various pathogens. Read more..

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