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Foodborne diseases

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 18.10.2021
 
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Food toxicosis (food bacterial poisoning, Latin toxicoinfectiones alimentariae) is a polyetiological group of acute intestinal infections that occur after eating food contaminated with conditionally pathogenic bacteria in which the accumulation of microbial mass of pathogens and their toxins occurred.

ICD-10 codes

  • A05. Other bacterial food poisoning.
  • A05.0. Staphylococcal food poisoning.
  • A05.2. Food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens (Clostridium welchii).
  • A05.3. Food poisoning caused by Vibrio Parahaemolyticus.
  • A05.4. Food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.
  • A05.8. Other specified bacterial food poisoning.
  • A05.9. Bacterial food poisoning, unspecified.

What causes foodborne disease?

Foodborne toxic infections combine a large number of etiologically different, but pathogenetically and clinically similar diseases.

Combining foodborne infections into a separate nosological form is caused by the need to unify measures to combat their spread and the effectiveness of the syndromic approach to treatment.

Sources of pathogens can be people and animals (patients, carriers), as well as environmental objects (soil, water). According to the ecological and epidemiological classification, PTI caused by opportunistic microflora is referred to the group of anthroponoses (staphylococcosis, enterococcosis) and sapronoses - water (aeromoniasis, plesiomonism, NAG infection, paragemolytic and albinolytic infections, edvardiellosis) and soil (cereus infection, clostridiosis , pseudomonas, klebsiellosis, proteosis, morganellosis, enterobacteriosis, erviniosis, hafnium and providential infection).

The mechanism of transmission of the pathogen is fecal-oral; the transmission path is food. Transmission factors are diverse. Usually, foodborne foodborne disease occurs after eating food contaminated with microorganisms that are brought in by dirty hands during cooking; non-contaminated water; finished products (in violation of the rules of storage and sale in conditions that promote the propagation of pathogens and the accumulation of their toxins).

What are the symptoms of foodborne disease?

Foodborne diseases have an incubation period that lasts from 2 hours to 1 day; at food toxic infections of staphylococcal etiology - up to 30 min. Food toxic infections are acute, the duration of this period is from 12 hours to 5 days, after which the recovery period begins . Symptoms of food toxic infections are characterized by general intoxication, dehydration and gastrointestinal syndrome.

The first symptoms of food poisoning are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, chills, fever, loose stools. The development of acute gastritis is indicated by a white tongue overlaid with white; vomiting (sometimes indomitable) eaten on the eve of food, then - mucus with an admixture of bile; severity and pain in the epigastric region. 4-5% of patients show only signs of acute gastritis. Pain in the abdomen can have a diffuse character, be cramped, rarely - permanent. The development of enteritis is indicated by diarrhea, which occurs in 95% of patients. Stools are abundant, watery, fetid, light yellow or brown; have the appearance of marsh mud.

Where does it hurt?

How are foodborne diseases diagnosed?

Foodborne toxic infections are diagnosed on the basis of the clinical picture of the disease, the group nature of the disease, the connection with the use of a certain product in violation of the rules for its preparation, storage or sale. The decision on hospitalization of the patient is made on the basis of epidemiological and clinical data. In all cases, a bacteriological study should be conducted to exclude shigellosis, salmonella, iersiniosis, escherichiosis and other acute intestinal infections. An urgent need for bacteriological and serological studies arises when there is a suspicion of cholera, in case of group cases of the disease and the occurrence of nosocomial outbreaks.

To confirm the diagnosis of "food poisoning" it is necessary to allocate the same microorganism from the patient's feces and the remains of a suspicious product. This takes into account the massiveness of growth, phage and antigenic uniformity, antibodies to the isolated strain of microorganisms found in convalescents. Diagnostic value is the setting of RA with an autostam in paired sera and a 4-fold increase in titer (with proteosis, cerosis, enterococcosis).

How are food-borne diseases treated?

Food toxic infections are treated in the hospital if patients have a severe and moderate course, provided that the persons are socially unsettled if the foodborne toxicoinfection occurs in any degree of severity.

Patients are advised to pridezhivatsya sparing diet (table number 2, 4, 13), excluding milk from the diet, canned foods, smoked products, spicy and spicy dishes, raw vegetables and fruits.

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