Characteristics of food poisoning
Food poisoning is a non-contagious disease caused by eating a product contaminated with bacteria, less often - a product that initially contains toxins. Differentiation from foodborne infections lies in a completely different pathway of disease transmission. If the infection is contagious by nature, then the cause of the toxic infections is the presence of pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic microorganisms in food. Secondary cases of infection are possible only with the condition of repeated use of contaminated food. The characteristic of food poisoning is food contamination first of all, in the second place - violation of sanitary conditions of processing, preparation or storage of food products. Avoiding food poisoning is much easier than infection, as compliance with the rules of personal and food hygiene provides almost 100% guarantee of health from infection.
Despite some similarity of symptoms, food pathologies should not be considered such pathologies:
- Intestinal fermentopathy.
- Food allergy.
- Avitaminosis, hypervitaminosis.
- The criminal nature of the toxic infection or the use of toxin by mistake.
- Binge eating.
- Alcohol intoxication.
The main characteristic signs of food poisoning are:
- Acute onset, rapid development of symptoms.
- Localization and clear tracking of the connection "poisoning - a specific area."
- The connection of mass poisonings with the consumption of a particular common dish.
- Rapid course of the disease, favorable prognosis (except for severe cases of botulism).
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Acute food poisoning
The acute form of food poisoning is rather a typical manifestation of the disease than a rarity. A characteristic feature of food toxicoinfection is a sudden manifestation, an acute onset and very obvious symptomatology. It is believed that acute food poisoning proceeds much easier and ends more quickly, without complications, than, for example, botulism, which can develop slowly, within 8-24 hours after the ingestion of the rod in the digestive tract. Acute symptoms are severe abdominal pain, colic, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Less common can be headaches, hyperthermia. Threatening symptoms are indomitable vomiting and diarrhea, a rapid increase in temperature to 38-40 degrees, a sharp dehydration of the body. Such cases require immediate hospitalization, since such acute food poisoning can result in a fatal outcome. Especially dangerous are severe toxic infections for young children from birth to 3 years old, for pregnant women, the elderly and those with myocardial infarction, for diabetics, for asthmatic diseases.
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Food poisoning is impossible without the participation of the product in the pathological process. Therefore, in addition to the fact that the culprits of the toxic infection are bacteria and toxins, the provocateurs of the disease are also considered certain types of food. Food poisoning most often occurs due to the use of poor-quality, dirty, spoiled food. There is an unofficial rating of food that poses a potential danger in terms of foodborne diseases and food toxicoses:
- The leaders in the list of milk and meat, as well as products from them. All kinds of fermented yoghurt, yogurt, kefir, cottage cheese, cheese with poor heat treatment, non-observance of sanitary conditions are the main sources of bacterial toxic infections. Meat and meat products are also dangerous if they are purchased in dubious places from untested vendors. Do not forget that food poisoning is a gross violation of storage conditions, especially for milk.
- The second place in the list is occupied by mushrooms, which provoke diseases of non-microbial etiology. Poisoning with mushrooms is considered a seasonal disease, which is most often diagnosed in the autumn.
- Fish and eggs are also dangerous: fish often contain toxins or can be seeded with microorganisms, and eggs are the main source of salmonella.
- Unwashed or rotten, spoiled vegetables and fruits are a source of summer poisoning.
- Canned food - the main culprit of severe food poisoning - botulism.
- The seafood - oysters, mussels, mollusks, which most often cause edible toxicoses of non-microbial etiology, are the last ones with a squeak.
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How long does food poisoning last?
The duration of the disease directly depends on the type of toxic infection and the severity of its symptoms. It is believed that the more acute the disease begins (PTI), the sooner it ends. Of course, any victim is concerned with the question - how long does food poisoning last.
The answer is that mild poisoning usually takes 2-3 days, but the process of normalizing the digestive tract can take a longer period - up to 2 weeks. It is not uncommon for cases when the toxicoinfection "starts" sharply, the symptoms develop rapidly. If vomiting and diarrhea become uncontrollable, accompanied by an increase in body temperature and neurological signs (impaired coordination, visual impairment, paresthesia), immediate medical attention is needed and how long the disease will last, only the doctor can tell. Botulism and fungal poisoning are most severe, the disease can develop longer (the incubation period is longer), this means a deep and comprehensive penetration of toxins into the body. Accordingly, if the mortal danger is past, the recovery will depend on the severity of the poison damage. Recovery may last for 3-4 weeks, and sometimes for a longer period.
Symptoms of food poisoning
Typical manifestations of food poisoning are sudden abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Thus, the body tries to remove pathogenic substances on its own.
Symptoms of food poisoning usually take place within two to three days without a trace, the most dangerous sign is dehydration - dehydration, especially in young children, whose weight is already so small. Dehydration is fraught with kidney failure and hypovolemic shock.
Threatening symptoms of a toxic infection are:
- Vomiting and diarrhea that do not stop (indomitable).
- A sharp rise in temperature to 39-40 degrees.
- Falling blood pressure.
- Cessation of urination or dark urine.
- Ophthalmic disorders (double vision, fog).
- Diarrhea with blood.
- Increased secretion of saliva, foam from the mouth.
- Violation of coordination of movements, fainting.
- Paralysis, convulsions.
Symptoms of food poisoning - this is the main and sometimes the only information that allows you to timely diagnose and help cope with intoxication. Particular attention to manifestations of the disease should be in case the child is injured. Young children are not able to accurately characterize their feelings, therefore visual signs and physiological manifestations of poisoning (vomiting, diarrhea, their frequency and intensity) should be controlled by adults. The dynamics of changes in symptoms is an indicator of either recovery, or a direct indication of the need for emergency medical care.
Signs of food poisoning are sudden and acute.
Typical symptoms of food poisoning include vomiting and diarrhea. Clinic of the disease is directly related to the type of pathogen:
- Salmonella is manifested by frequent vomiting, severe pain in the abdomen. Incubation lasts from a few hours to a day, so signs of food poisoning can develop gradually. For salmonellosis, a typical high temperature, sometimes reaching 40 degrees. In feces can be observed mucus and an admixture of blood.
- Botulism is manifested by severe headache, weakness, frustration of the central nervous system, spasms of the larynx, paralysis.
- Staphylococcus manifests itself more often after 30-40 minutes after eating contaminated food. Vomiting immediately becomes almost indomitable, body temperature rises rarely, but can be subfebrile. Characteristic weakness, a drop in blood pressure and lack of diarrhea (diarrhea occurs in only 35-40% of cases of toxic infection).
- Signs of food poisoning with proteins are characterized by diarrhea and colic, often the body temperature rises. Symptoms develop quickly, the legs also quickly and abate (1-2 days).
Manifestations of food poisoning, food toxicosis are the basic diagnostic information for the doctor, since bacteriological studies (crops) do not always reveal the true cause - the causative agent. This is due to the specific nature of the bacteriological material-vomiting or feces, because in addition to the alleged microorganism, there are a lot of "relatives" of opportunistic bacteria, among which the pathogenic agent of toxic infection hides skillfully.