Under the constitution (constitution) is understood a set of properties of the organism, determined mainly by heredity, but also formed under the influence of a way of life, environment, including social factors. Formation of morphological and functional properties of various organs and systems occurs under the influence of the regulating role of the nervous and endocrine systems.
General examination allows you to determine the correspondence of the appearance of the patient to his age. Such an assessment is rather subjective. However, in a patient who looks older than his age, there are more reasons to presume a disease that occurs in a more mature age.
In connection with this, the classification of man's temperament and character, known from ancient times, has some significance:
- phlegmatic person;
Characterizing the strength and the ratio of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the central nervous system, IP Pavlov characterized these temperaments accordingly as follows:
- strong unrestrained;
- strong counterbalanced - slow;
- strong counterbalanced - fast;
Human development in a social environment, that is, human society, has led to the formation of features of the psyche, inclinations and abilities of a person who are in development and sometimes exert an influence on his way of life. At the same time, individual achievements are possible, which are regarded as manifestations of great talent.
This applies to such types as artistic - artistic; intellectual - scientific and technical; social and so-called "golden hands" (the latter refers to a person who has the ability to do needlework and performs great physical activity in the form of fairly stereotypical movements, and sometimes it is possible to detect signs of damage to the locomotor apparatus).
At external survey it is possible to allocate three constitutional types: asthenic, normostenic and hypersthenic.
Asthenics are characterized by the predominance of longitudinal dimensions over the transverse, their limbs are elongated and thin; Asthenics are often thin, their muscles are relatively poorly developed. Asthenics differ in their tendency to lower arterial pressure, the metabolism proceeds more rapidly, the absorption in the intestine is less intense. Asthenics are more likely to have tuberculosis, ulcerous stomach disease.
The hypersthenic type is characterized by the predominance of transverse dimensions over the longitudinal ones. The head is round, the face is wide, features soft, the neck is short, thick, the thorax is wide, short, the ribs are almost horizontal. This type has a tendency to increase blood pressure, obesity. Hypersthenics suffer from metabolic disorders more often with the appearance of stones in the kidneys and gall bladder, atherosclerosis.
In general, pronounced constitutional types are not so common, the influence of the external constitution on the development of specific pathological processes is not so often traced and has no great diagnostic significance. The psychological type is important in terms of assessing the social and physical activity and lifestyle of the patient.