The fact that an aneurysm of the heart can have different sizes, localization and causes of pathology, causes significant differences in the manifestation of the disease in different people. Nevertheless, in order to capture the disease at the very beginning, without expecting the growth of an aneurysm to critical dimensions (it is clinically important to reduce muscle resistance even in a small area of 1 cm), one should know and pay attention to at least those symptoms that are peculiar any of the types of aneurysms of the heart.
To the first signs on which an aneurysm of the heart of any localization is determined, it is possible to relate:
- Pain in the region of the heart or a feeling of heaviness (pressure) behind the sternum on the left. The pain is paroxysmal. When a person is resting and calm, the pain subsides.
- Malaise and weakness, which resulted from the shortage of oxygen to the neuromuscular system. This is due to a decrease in the volume of the distilled blood due to insufficient contractile function of the myocardium in the area of the aneurysm.
- Violations of the heart rate, called arrhythmia, and a feeling of a strong heartbeat, which a normal person does not feel (according to the complaints of patients, the heart is beating hard). The reason for this condition is the inadequate conductivity of nerve impulses in the aneurysm area and a large load on the diseased organ. Arrhythmias are aggravated by stress or heavy physical exertion.
- Disturbances in the rhythm of breathing, shortness of breath or simply shortness of breath, which in case of acute illness can be accompanied by attacks of cardiac asthma and pulmonary edema. High blood pressure inside the heart is gradually transferred to blood vessels that supply blood to the lungs. As a result, oxygen metabolism is disturbed and it becomes more difficult for a person to breathe. Hence the downtrodden breathing rhythm.
- Pale shade of skin. The reason again is a violation of the supply of oxygen to the tissues of the body. First of all, resources are sent to vital organs (brain, heart, kidneys), and the skin remains less saturated with blood.
- Cold extremities and their rapid freezing, associated with a violation of blood circulation.
- Reducing the sensitivity of the skin, the appearance of "goose bumps".
- A dry paroxysmal cough, not associated with a cold or infection. It is also called heart. It can be a consequence of stagnant phenomena in the pulmonary vessels, and may appear as a result of squeezing the lung with an aneurysm of large dimensions.
- Increased sweating.
- Vertigo, or, in a popular way, dizziness, which can occur with varying frequency.
- Swelling, which can be observed both on the face, and on the hands or feet.
- Fever for a long time (with acute aneurysm).
- A strong filling of the veins in the neck with blood, so that they become more noticeable.
- A hoarse voice.
- The accumulation of fluid in the abdominal or pleural cavity, enlargement of the liver, dry pericarditis, which is an inflammatory process in the cardiac bag (pericardium), accompanied by fibrotic changes, violation of the patency of various blood vessels (can be detected during diagnostic activities in chronic aneurysm).
Symptoms of heart aneurysm can be imposed different manifestations of other existing pathologies of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, which significantly complicates the diagnosis of the disease. And the symptoms themselves, depending on the size of the aneurysm, can be expressed in varying degrees. With a small or congenital aneurysm of the heart, the disease for a long time can generally take place without any suspicious symptoms and recall yourself much later.
Where in the heart area is the aneurysm diagnosed most often?
As already mentioned, the most common form of myocardial pathology is an aneurysm of the left ventricle of the heart. It is this area that is loaded with work more than others. Experiencing the greatest burden, the left ventricle is more prone to damage due to myocardial infarction. And consequently, an aneurysm is often found on it. This can also contribute to heart injuries or infectious pathologies.
During the diagnostic activities, the doctor can observe the protrusion of the wall of the left ventricle. Most often, the aneurysm of the left ventricle of the heart is the anterior wall of the heart. But cases of illness are frequent, where the top of the heart on the left side becomes the site of aneurysm localization (protrusion).
Such pathology is not characteristic for children due to the absence of the reasons for this category of patients, which can lead to the development of this disease.
Less frequent in patients is an aneurysm of the heart vessels. It can be an aneurysm of the ascending aorta of the heart, as well as a protrusion of the aortic sinus wall.
In the first case, the disease is caused mainly by inflammatory processes that arise as a consequence of diseases of an infectious nature. Complaints of patients are reduced to aching pains in the chest, dyspnea and edema of various localization due to squeezing the wall of the aorta with a passing hollow vein.
Aneurysm of the sinuses of the aorta is associated with a decrease in the lumen of the coronary arteries, as a result of which, under the pressure of the blood, the wall weakened for some reason begins to sag, exerting pressure on the right side of the heart. Fortunately, the pathology of the vessels of the heart, associated with weakening from the walls, are infrequent.
An aneurysm of the interventricular septum does not occur very often, since it is among the congenital heart diseases. However, not in all cases it is found during pregnancy or immediately after the birth of the child. It happens that the congenital maldevelopment of the septum between the ventricles of the heart causes an aneurysm to protrude after a while.
Most often, this pathology is detected by chance, in particular, during echocardiography, because it is characterized by an asymptomatic course.
An aneurysm may choose to place its location in other areas of the heart (right ventricle or atrium, posterior wall of the left ventricle), but this happens rarely.
Aneurysm of the heart in children
No matter how strange it may sound, the heart diseases are peculiar not only to elderly and mature people. These pathologies can also affect young people, adolescents and even very young children.
Pathological protrusion of the site of the cardiac muscle in children is associated with the developmental defects of one or more valvular valves, interventricular or interatrial septum, resulting in an aneurysm at this site.
Such a rare pathology, like the aneurysm of the atrial septum, which can remind oneself even in adulthood, occurs even in the prenatal period due to the underdevelopment or alteration of the structure of the septum of the heart that separates the left and right atrium. By analogy, an aneurysm of the interventricular septum is formed.
In childhood, these types of heart disease are very rare (no more than 1% of all patients), nevertheless, they pose a great danger to the life of the child. Well, if the pathology is detected even during the ultrasound of a pregnant woman. Then the child after his birth immediately put on the record to the cardiologist, and after the baby turns a year old, he begins to prepare for an operation to remove the aneurysm.
The likelihood of an aneurysm of the heart is higher in children born with low weight, and premature babies. This is due to the fact that heart defects in these categories of children are much more common, and they are more likely associated with underdevelopment of the muscular or cardiovascular system of the heart.
While the child is small, a congenital aneurysm of the heart may not manifest itself in any way, but as the child grows up and increases in motor activity, and thus the heart, the following symptoms may appear:
- diffuse pain in the chest,
- shortness of breath and shortness of breath after physical exertion,
- the occurrence of periodic pain in the heart,
- causeless cough without excretion of phlegm,
- fast fatigue, weakness and drowsiness,
- regurgitation in feeding (in infants), nausea (in older children),
- headaches with active movement, dizziness,
- strong sweating regardless of air temperature.
During the diagnosis, doctors also determine such manifestations of the disease as
- abnormal pulsation in region 3 of the rib on the left, when listening to it resembles the sound of swinging waves,
- thrombi, adherent to the walls of large arteries of the heart, arising from the violation of blood circulation,
- arrhythmias, as a result of playing sports and stress.
A special danger for both adults and children is the rupture of the heart aneurysm due to the strong thinning of the muscular walls. That's why the doctors forbid to go in for sports with such a diagnosis, because this is associated with a significant increase in the load on the heart muscle. In the future, patients are advised to lead a healthy lifestyle, avoid stressful situations and adhere to a rational diet.