What does the thoracic surgeon do?
Many existing diseases of the thoracic cavity can be treated conservatively, that is, medicamentously. But there are diseases in which drugs are powerless. And then they resort to surgery, that is, surgical treatment. And this is done by the thoracic surgeons.
What else does the thoracic surgeon do? To get the full information for an accurate diagnosis, conduct a thorough examination of patients, make a plan for each patient's examination, prescribe all necessary procedures and medical manipulations. Defines the tactics of surgical treatment, preoperatively prepares patients and conducts the necessary operations. Surgical treatment is used only if there is no real possibility to cope with pathology with conservative methods, and also when the development of complications leads to life-threatening consequences, for example, the breakthrough of lung abscess into the pleural cavity, pulmonary bleeding or fistula formation.
Today in thoracic surgery, modern endoscopic and laparoscopic minimally invasive methods of surgical treatment, microsurgical and laser technologies have come to the aid of the traditional scalpel. They allow not only to reduce the size of the operating field, but also greatly facilitate access to the organs of the thoracic cavity, which are located behind the ribs. This reduces the recovery time of patients after the most difficult surgical interventions.
In addition, the thoracic surgeon prescribes medication in the postoperative period and monitors the patients' condition in order to prevent complications.
What diseases does the thoracic surgeon treat?
According to the thoracic surgeons, most often they have to deal with diseases of the lungs and bronchi - purulent-inflammatory (abscesses of different etiology, bronchiectatic disease, emphysema), lung tumors, cystic formations, and tuberculosis, which accounts for at least 80% of all of cases.
Esophageal pathologies, in which surgical treatment is indicated, include: diverticula (protrusion of the wall) of the esophagus, purulent or phlegmous inflammation of the esophagus walls (esophagitis); benign and malignant neoplasms of the thoracic esophagus, violation of swallowing (achalasia), esophageal tracheal fistulas, burns and scar scarring of this part of the digestive tract.
Also in the list of what diseases the thoracic surgeon treats, include:
- pathology of the pleura and pericardium (tissue membrane of the heart, aorta and pulmonary trunk) - acute and chronic empyema (accumulation of pus) of the pleural cavity, cysts and tumors of the pleura and pericardium, pericarditis and diverticula of the pericardium.
- diseases of the mediastinum - neoplasm of mediastinum and trachea, accumulation of lymph in the pleural cavity (chylothorax), acute and chronic inflammation of the mediastinum cellulitis (mediastinitis), persistent narrowing of the lumen (stenosis) of the trachea and bronchi;
- diseases of the diaphragm and chest wall - hernia, cysts, tumors and lesions; chondritis and perichondritis; purulent inflammation of bone tissue (osteomyelitis) of ribs, scapula and sternum.
- pathology of the thymus and thyroid glands.
In the care of the thoracic surgeon - removal of foreign objects from the esophagus, as well as various injuries of the thoracic cavity.