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A sore throat

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 24.06.2018

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Sore throat is a common complaint that is being sought for medical help. Every adult on average 2-3 times a year experiences a sore throat. Annually, each general practitioner takes about 300-600 people with a complaint of sore throat and upper respiratory tract infections.

The pain in the throat is considered by many to be a non-serious symptom, which either passes by itself, or with the help of "all-powerful" advertised pharmacy candy. Lollipops, of course, are not a cure, but they are pleasant to taste and seem to take away the primary responsibility for sore throat. However, quite often the pain does not want to succumb to such self-treatment, then in the course are different rinses from the arsenal of "grandmother's recipes." Without detracting from the merits of pharmacy products and alternative ways to combat pain, you should still understand the reasons for the sore throat, the variety of its symptoms, what can be done on your own, and in what cases should you contact the doctor.

Sore throat is one of the most common complaints. Any cold is usually accompanied by a sore throat.

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Causes of sore throat

One of the most common causes that causes sore throat is a viral or bacterial infection. Pharyngitis of viral etiology is diagnosed in 85% of cases. It is caused most often by adenoviruses in the period of mass acute respiratory diseases. Viral pharyngitis differs from its "colleague" - bacterial pharyngitis in that pain in the throat is accompanied by rhinorrhea (mucous discharge from the nose), tear of the eyes, coughing, slight increase in body temperature.

In second place in the frequency of the causes of pain in the throat is streptococcal angina beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A) - in 10-15% of cases. But not all sore throats are a consequence of the common cold. In this regard, it is useful to know the main causes that cause sensation of pain in the throat.

Pharyngitis of bacterial etiology is much less common, mainly caused by streptococci. In contrast to viral pharyngitis, bacterial manifestation is mainly a throat symptomatology - puffiness of the back of the pharynx, plaque in the tongue and tonsils, an increase in lymph nodes without a runny nose and often without coughing. 

Bacterial inflammation of the throat - tonsillitis, tonsillitis. Provoked most often streptococci and manifested respiratory difficulties, pain when swallowing, high fever, increased hyperemic tonsils. 

Allergy. Sore throat is a consequence of an allergic disease, a kind of reaction to an allergen, in winter pain sensations of allergic etiology are most often manifested in the cold. 

Mechanical inflammation of the throat, vocal cords - laryngitis. Most often, this disease is typical for people who daily engage in long-term communication (teachers, announcers, actors) or for vocalists. Throat and pain in the throat are not fatal, but can seriously damage the career if you do not start to treat ligaments. 

Serious pathologies and cancer processes also cause sore throat. Among them can be called chronic stomatitis, cytomegalovirus infection of the body, HIV. The most severe and unfavorable in terms of predictions are oncology processes in the larynx, neoplasms.

Thus, sore throat can be a symptom of many, sometimes life-threatening diseases. It is easiest to independently differentiate the viral and bacterial nature of pain in the throat.

Bacterial infection that affects the larynx is most often manifested by a white characteristic coating in the tongue and tonsils. In the event that the sore throat appeared suddenly, rather than a consequence of a week's ailment, white plaque is the main primary sign of bacterial contamination.

Viral infection is manifested by pain in the goal, as a rule, immediately, and on the second or third day the pain gradually fades.

Of course, it is more advisable to consult a doctor who not only collects anamnesis, interviews and examines the patient, but also assigns an analysis - a smear to determine the true pathogen.

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What measures can be taken independently if there is a sore throat?

  • A plentiful, frequent drink that softens the sore throat;
  • If possible, compliance with rest, bed rest;
  • Rinse with warm saline solution that is able to wash off mucus and soften inflammation (1/2 teaspoon of salt, preferably sea, dilute in a glass of warm boiled water);
  • Voice rest - if possible, do not strain the ligament and talk less;
  • Elimination of alcohol, smoking and cigarette smoke in principle;
  • The warming dry compress is externally on the throat;

Sore throat can be severe, acute, if it persists for more than three days, you should consult your doctor. The doctor diagnoses the disease, appointing additional tests - a smear from the throat, a general blood test. Based on the information received, a treatment plan will be drawn up, which may include taking antiviral or antibacterial drugs (depending on the cause), physiotherapy procedures.

Who to contact?

What complications is the sore throat?

Pain sensations in the throat can disappear on their own, however, if you do not take timely measures, the cause of the pain is the underlying disease, goes into a chronic form and can trigger the following complications:

  • Purulent inflammation of the tonsils right up to abscesses;
  • Lymphadenitis;
  • Heart disease - rheumatic heart disease;
  • Kidney disease - glomerulonephritis;
  • A common systemic autoimmune disease is rheumatism.

It is important to know!

Such a sensation as a sensation in the throat, is known to any person from a young age. There was a discomfort in the throat, and we immediately climb into the first aid kit for medicines. Read more..

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