The level of accumulated acetone compounds in the body depends on the symptomatology. In mild form - weakness, feeling restless, nausea. Urinalysis is confirmed by ketonuria.
Symptoms of a state of moderate severity include the following: dry, lined tongue, increased thirst, strong acetone halitosis, frequent shallow breathing, abdominal pain without clear localization, dry skin, chills, nausea, confusion may occur. In urine, the ketone compounds increase.
The severe condition of the acetone crisis is identical to a diabetic coma, in which the symptoms are the same as in the case of an average condition with a possible patient's unconsciousness.
The diagnosis of ketoacidosis is based on clinical symptoms and laboratory tests. In blood serum analyzes, hyperketonemia (up to 16-20 mmol / L at a norm of 0.03-0.2 mmol / L) is noted and the presence of high levels of acetone in the urine.
The smell of acetone from the mouth in an adult
The causes of the odor of acetone from the mouth are identical in childhood and adulthood. Distinctive features are provocative factors. Acetone halitosis in adults, in most cases, is observed with diabetes of the first and second types. Acute acetone smell in adult patients is often associated with neurological disorders, anorexia, thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies, tumor tissue proliferation and diets (especially those associated with prolonged medical starvation).
An adult has adaptive potential to unfavorable living conditions. Long-term accumulation and a long-term high level of ketone compounds in the systemic blood flow leads to the exhaustion of compensatory possibilities and the active manifestation of symptoms of a latent disease accompanied by the odor of acetone from the mouth.
The smell of acetone from the mouth after alcohol
With prolonged and frequent use of alcoholic beverages, there may be a smell of acetone. The reason is that when alcohol is split by hepatic enzymes through the lungs, the alcohol toxin of acetaldehyde is released, which is felt by outsiders, like the smell of acetone from the mouth.
It indicates a sharp shift of acid-base balance in the acidic side (acidosis). Reducing the resistance of the liver to alcohol provokes the appearance of a smell of acetone from the mouth due to the use of alcohol-containing beverages.
The smell of acetone and urine from the mouth
With nephropathies and the development of renal insufficiency, an ammonia odor from the mouth is added to the smell of acetone. Kidneys remove toxins and residues of waste products from the body. If the renal filtration function is impaired, the efficiency of the evacuation of harmful substances decreases and their accumulation takes place. One of its signs is an ammonia smell, which is similar to acetone. They are often confused. To clarify the pathology of the kidneys in the occurrence of ammonia or acetone halitosis, you should consult a urologist or nephrologist.
The smell of acetone from the mouth as a symptom of the disease
Acetone smell can be a symptom of a serious illness
Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease, which causes the smell of acetone.
Type I diabetes mellitus is caused by pathologies associated with pancreatic function. There is a sharp reduction or termination of the synthesis of insulin, responsible for the intake of glucose (the main source of energy) in the body cells. Insulin has the ability to deliver split sugar through cell membranes, ensuring the maintenance of a stable level of glucose in the bloodstream. In type II diabetes, the insulin hormone is generated in its entirety, but cells do not perceive the delivered glucose. Because of what in the blood flow there is an accumulation of excess amount of glucose and a large amount of insulin. If there is an excess of the hormone, the receptors inform the brain of the need for food. There is a false need for food, the consequence of which will be obesity. Excess glucose levels, reaching critical levels, leads to a hyperglycemic coma.
Diabetes is characterized by acidosis and ketonomy, especially in childhood. The rate of ketones in the systemic circulation is 5-12 mg%, in the presence of a patient with diabetes, the percentage of acetone bodies increases to 50-80 mg%, as a result, acetone smell from the mouth is felt. In urine, a high content of ketones is found.
With hyperglycemic coma, there is an acetone smell. The severity of the general condition of the patient is gradually increasing. At the beginning of the attack - tachycardia, narrowing of the pupils, skin pale and dry, possibly the appearance of gastralgia.
The appearance of symptoms of diabetic coma and their aggravation is the reason for calling for emergency medical care, and further treatment in a hospital.
In the air being extracted, there is an acetone smell if the patient has impaired renal function, since the products of nutrient cleavage are not excreted in the urine.
The acetone smell is the first sign of the appearance of kidney nephrosis or dystrophy caused by destruction in the renal tubules and a violation of the filtration and excretion functions. These diseases are characterized by abnormalities of metabolic processes, related to the disorder of elimination of lipid metabolites from the body, leading to the accumulation of ketones in the blood. Nephrosis can be a companion of chronic infections (tuberculosis, rheumatism).
Another disease that contributes to the occurrence of acetone halitosis is hyperthyroidism. This pathology of the thyroid gland, accompanied by a steady increase in the level of synthesis of thyroid hormones and leading to an increase in metabolic processes with the effects of formation and accumulation of ketone compounds.
Increase in acetone-containing compounds occurs in the long period of curative hunger, irrational nutrition (monotonous and unbalanced).
Acetone smell from the mouth can occur in people who observe a strict diet and lovers of frequent periods of fasting. Diets that use reduced caloric intake, by eliminating carbohydrates and fats, can cause metabolic disorders and, with uncontrolled use, lead to negative irreversible consequences. It is useless to use oral fresheners, chewing gums to get rid of the odor of acetone. First, it is necessary to establish and eliminate the cause that led to its appearance.
Odor of acetone from the mouth with type 2 diabetes
Of particular note is type II diabetes mellitus. It flows with rapid obesity (80-90% of patients). Cell walls significantly thicken, membrane permeability for sugar degradation products is impaired because of loss of sensitivity to insulin, the main glucose conductor into the cells of the body. In consequence of this, there is an acetone smell. Stabilize and contain the progress of the disease is possible by applying a special therapeutic diet, which allows you to effectively get rid of excess body weight. Adherence to the diet of foods with low content of easily digestible carbohydrates helps to reduce the body's critical indicators of acetone.
The smell of acetone from the mouth with coma
Differential diagnosis of coma states is difficult, if not known, preceding coma, events or the presence in the patient's history of a diagnosis with the possible occurrence of coma complications. Almost in all cases there is a smell of acetone from the mouth and / or its presence in the urine.
Alcoholic coma. Occurs with frequent and uncontrolled intake of alcohol-containing beverages. Small doses of alcohol are also capable of inducing a coma if the person has an absolute intolerance to ethyl. Overdose of alcohol and coma can be fatal if you do not start detoxification on time. Objectively, in a deep alcoholic coma, there is a lack of consciousness, fading of reflexes, a threadlike pulse, a drop in blood pressure to critically low figures. The facial skin acquires a pale-cyanotic hue, the body is covered with a cold, sticky sweat. There is a sharp smell of alcohol and acetone from the mouth, alcohol and acetone are determined in the blood and urine. Alcoholic coma may also occur as a result of the consumption of methyl (technical) alcohol. The frequency of deaths is much higher than with the use of ethyl alcohol. Therapeutic measures of detoxification therapy are conducted in specialized departments.
Uremic coma. Chronic uremic coma is a condition that is considered the terminal stage of chronic renal failure that occurs against the background of glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, arteriolosclerotic wrinkled kidney. Manifestations and severity are aggravated for a long time. Gradually increase lethargy, weakness, thirst, there is a pronounced smell of ammonia and acetone from the mouth, voice hoarseness, nausea, vomiting, retardation. As a result of intoxication, the respiratory center suffers and pathological respiration appears as Cheyne-Stokes or Kussmaul.
In the blood tests, increasing amounts of creatinine, urea, residual nitrogen are recorded, and acidosis progresses. The confusion is replaced by confusion, then the patients go into an unconscious state and die.
Blood tests confirm a high degree of metabolic acidosis, a progressive increase in creatinine, uric acid, and residual nitrogen.
One of the components of complex therapy for uremia is the use of hemodialysis.
Hepatic coma is a symptomatic complex of severe liver damage. Progresses with inhibition of central nervous system functions and is complicated by coma. The coma can develop gradually or quickly. It occurs with acute toxic dystrophic liver damage, after extensive necrotic processes or due to cirrhotic changes in the liver in viral hepatitis. It is accompanied by increasing retardation, disorientation, drowsiness, confusion of consciousness, there is a characteristic smell of the liver from the mouth, icterus of the skin. With further aggravation of the state, there is a lack of consciousness, the appearance of pathological reflexes and the death of the patient.
In the analysis of blood, low values of total protein and albumins, increased bile acid levels, increased bilirubin, increased activity of specific hepatic enzymes, decreased blood coagulation and cholesterol.
The smell of acetone from the mouth at a temperature of
A temperature reaction occurs when the heat production exceeds the heat transfer under the action of pyrogenic substances. Increased heat production occurs due to the enhancement of metabolic processes, when chemical reactions take place in the body with the release of heat. In these reactions, almost all the glucose potential and a large percentage of brown fat are involved. Enhanced transformations of fatty compounds lead to under-oxidation of lipids with the formation of ketone bodies. Excess acetone compounds can cause nausea and vomiting. Ketones, which can not excrete the kidneys, begin to separate through the lungs, which leads to the appearance of an odor of acetone. During a period of illness with temperature rises, doctors recommend a plentiful drink. After recovering from ARI or other infection, or stopping hyperthermia, the smell of acetone from the mouth stops. If halitosis is noticeable, despite adherence to the drinking regime, it is an alarming factor and an excuse to seek medical advice.
Odor of acetone from the mouth with migraine
With acetone crisis and migraine, there is a similar symptomatology: dizziness, nausea, vomiting, severe sweating. The smell of acetone from the mouth with migraine, usually absent. The results of the determination of ketone bodies in urine will also be negative. If migraine is a concomitant symptom of any disease causing acetone halitosis, then the therapy of the underlying pathology is required. It is necessary to undergo certain types of research: a biochemical blood test, determination of the presence of ketone bodies in the urine, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs. There is another list of studies that will be determined by the doctor. At home, it is possible to determine acetone compounds in urine using test strips.
The smell of acetone from the mouth during starvation
Among the factors provoking acetone halitosis should be noted mono-diet and therapeutic starvation. In the absence of food, the brain transmits impulses that activate the increase in glucose in the systemic bloodstream due to some organic supply of glycogen in the liver. The organism for some time manages to keep glucose values at the physiological level. The stock of complex glycogen carbohydrate is limited. Then the body has to actively use alternative sources of nutrition and energy, which are components of adipose tissue. When decaying lipid organic compounds, cells use the released energy and combinations of nutrients. Active transformation of fats occurs with the formation of acetone-containing compounds. Elevated levels of lipid metabolites have a toxic effect on the body. Their accumulation leads to the appearance of an unpleasant odor from the mouth and is an attempt by the body to get rid of toxins through the lungs. With prolonged starvation, halitosis becomes more pronounced. Unintended use of diets can lead to unpredictable negative results.
The smell of acetone from the mouth of the child
Imperfection and the formation of many organs and systems lead to the occurrence of frequent failures in the reactions of nutrient transformation and metabolic processes. The tendency to the manifestation of the symptoms of the acetone crisis is observed in children up to the age of five. There are primary and secondary types of acetonemia.
The primary type of acetone crisis is the errors in the diet, imbalance in nutrition, periods of hunger. The second type is due to the presence of somatic disease, infectious pathologies, endocrine disruption or a tumor process. In the child's body, ketone compounds accumulate faster and have a pronounced toxic effect. Symptoms of crises of the first and second types are the same: acetone halitosis, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, the presence of high ketone bodies in the blood, the appearance of acetone in the urine. A child may have a genetic predisposition to acetonemia.
To trigger manifestations of acetone crisis in a child are provoking factors: physical exhaustion, a strong nervous shock, mental overexcitation, a change in climatic conditions.
Adequate treatment is prescribed by a doctor, after conducting a medical examination, laboratory diagnosis and the setting of an accurate diagnosis.
The smell of acetone from the mouth of a newborn
A newborn child is considered from the moment of birth and up to 28 days of life. The presence of a smell of acetone indicates a violation of carbohydrate (energy) metabolism. With a persistent acetone odor and constant concern for the baby, the pediatrician needs help. At home, independently, the presence of ketone compounds in the urine of a newborn can be checked with the help of test strips. This is difficult because of the problematic collection, especially for girls, of the material being analyzed, but possible.
The smell of acetone that appeared after the disease with high temperatures indicates an exhausted reserve of glucose, which is involved in pyrogenic reactions. In children, glycogen in the liver is much less than in adults, it is exhausted faster.
The smell of acetone can appear if the child is on artificial feeding because of imperfections in the digestive system and enzymatic deficiency.
With hidden problems of kidneys, acetone appears due to insufficiently complete excretion of metabolic products. Non-compliance with drinking regimen or overheating of a newborn, acetone smell may also appear. In the case, the addition of vomiting and the smell of acetone increases, urgent medical consultation is needed.
Vomiting in the child and the smell of acetone from the mouth
Excessive accumulation of ketones, their toxic effect on all systems and irritation of the emetic center in the central nervous system leads to the emergence of persistent acetonemic vomiting. In the blood, a decrease in the level of glucose is recorded (hypoglycemia).
A typical clinical picture of acetonemic vomiting: repeated attacks of vomiting, which lead to significant weakness, metabolic decompensation and acute dehydration. The phenomenon is common among children aged 18 months to 5 years. Vomiting is preceded by significant increases in acetone levels and the appearance of acetonuria. When ketone compounds reach critical levels in the blood, a characteristic odor of acetone from the mouth is felt and indomitable vomiting appears. The most common factors that provoke acetonemic vomiting are:
- Infections - viral and bacterial, accompanied by a small amount of fluid during fever;
- Too long breaks between meals;
- Unbalanced protein, fat and carbohydrate diet;
- Psychosomatic disorders.
The condition requires urgent inpatient treatment, as it can lead to the emergence of persistent disturbances in metabolic processes, shifts in acid-base and water-electrolyte balances, leading to life-threatening consequences for the health and life of the child.
The smell of acetone from the mouth of a teenager
By the teenage period, the functional formation of many organs and systems is almost completed. Therefore, the odor of acetone from the mouth in a teenager can be a sign of pathological disorders of metabolic processes in the body. Acetone halitosis can mean that there are certain health problems and one should not treat them lightly. The presence of an acetone odor from the mouth can be a testimony:
- the initial stage of diabetes mellitus, which has not reached obvious clinical manifestations;
- inaccuracies in the diet;
- pathologies on the part of the digestive tract, kidney disease, thyroid, parathyroid and pancreatic glands;
- dysfunctions in work, acute and chronic liver diseases;
- acute and chronic infectious-inflammatory diseases.