You are here


Research of oncomarkers

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 31.05.2018

All iLive content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure as much factual accuracy as possible.

We have strict sourcing guidelines and only link to reputable media sites, academic research institutions and, whenever possible, medically peer reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses ([1], [2], etc.) are clickable links to these studies.

If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please select it and press Ctrl + Enter.

Markers of malignant growth include substances of different nature: antigens, hormones, enzymes, glycoproteins, lipids, proteins, metabolites. Synthesis of markers is due to the peculiarities of the metabolism of the cancer cell. Abnormal expression of the genome is one of the main mechanisms of the production of markers by tumor cells, which determines the synthesis of embryonic, placental and ectopic enzymes, antigens and hormones. A wide range of markers is known for various cancer localizations, but only single ones can correspond to some extent with the notion of an "ideal marker".

The diagnostic significance of the tumor marker depends on its sensitivity and specificity. So far, there are no tumor markers that meet the definition of ideal, that is, markers with almost 100% specificity (not detectable in benign diseases and in healthy people) and 100% sensitivity (always detectable even in early stages of tumor development). In the study of cancer markers, the notion of "cotoff" (separation point) - the upper limit of the concentration of the tumor marker in healthy people and in patients with benign tumors - is of great importance. The split point does not have a fixed value and can vary according to the purpose of the test. If the goal is to identify as many patients with tumors as possible, the point of separation is set at a low level to increase sensitivity, at the cost of an inevitable increase in the frequency of false positive results (decrease in specificity). If it is necessary to increase the likelihood of a positive test result being consistent with the presence of a tumor, the separation point should be set at a high level to increase specificity by increasing the frequency of false negative results (decreased sensitivity).

For most oncomarkers, the unified values of the point of separation are established, which are adhered to by the most authoritative researchers.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11]

It is important to know!

The causes of the development and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, like cancer in general, have not been elucidated. However, it is noted that such factors as chronic pancreatitis, cysts and pancreatic injuries, chronic diseases of bile ducts, alcoholism, addiction to very fatty and spicy food, diabetes, radioactive irradiation (in case of violation of occupational safety and in case of emergencies) , some chemical hazards, among which benzidine, beta-naphthylamine are most often mentioned, contribute to the increase in the incidence of cancer. Read more..

Found an error? Select it and press Ctrl + Enter.
You are reporting a typo in the following text:
Simply click the "Send typo report" button to complete the report. You can also include a comment.