Pyromania is a rather complicated and contradictory diagnosis. On the one hand, this is an independent pathology, which is expressed in uncontrollable passion for fire and everything that is associated with it. But on the other hand, this pathology is rarely found in its pure form. Most often, pyromania is isolated as one of the secondary symptoms of mental illness and organic brain damage.
It is clear that a general approach to the treatment of patients with true pyromania and pathologies of the psyche, and even more so with cerebral diseases, there can not be. That is why the diagnosis of pathology is so important, which helps to calculate what drives the actions of a particular pyromaniac.
The difficulty in diagnosing pathology lies in the fact that when confronted with a pyromaniac in action, it is not always possible to immediately figure out how much this person is mentally healthy or sick. If in the process of diagnostic measures there were no known mental pathologies, including various psychosexual disorders, you should pay attention to the presence or absence of alcohol intoxication, the intellectual level of the patient, the presence of organic brain lesions and other factors that can clarify the situation.
If the patient is a child or a teenager it is important to study in which circle he or she rotates (the status of parents, family environment, friends, youth groups, etc.). Adolescents are very often badly influenced by adolescents who purposefully organize asocial teenage clubs and sects, which sometimes practice pogroms, robbery, arson, and vandalism. A teenager who does not have a relationship with peers or has big problems in the family, it's so easy to involve in such organizations, where he can throw out all the accumulated negative.
As for patients with mental disabilities, it must be borne in mind that schizophrenics perform arson "not on their own". They are guided by "voices", ordering to commit a crime. Or, with the help of fire, they try to get rid of certain entities that are to them in the form of hallucinations.
With the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, again, there is an element of imposing thoughts and actions by some other-worldly powers. A person understands that his actions do not make sense, but can not help but obey the influence of non-existent forces.
In both cases, pyromania in patients can not be cured until the symptoms of obsessive behavior, delusions and hallucinations are reduced. Usually in such cases, in addition to psychotherapy, hypnosis and medication (neuroleptics, sedatives, antipsychotics) are used.
In people with deviations in the psychosexual sphere, incendiary is one of the ways of sexual relaxation. In the therapy of such patients, psychological, psychotherapeutic and social techniques are used. Especially indicative in this regard are hypnosis, auto-training, behavioral therapy. It is very important to show the patient that there are other, not criminal ways to achieve sexual satisfaction, which in society are considered normal.
With organic brain lesions, a person simply does not realize all the inadequacy and danger of his actions. He is like a child, he can not assess the risks. In this case, again, it is necessary to treat not the pyromania itself, but its causes, i.e. Brain. In organic brain diseases, various groups of drugs are used: psychostimulating and nootropic drugs, neuroprotectants, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, massage, physical therapy and, of course, work with a psychologist.
Patients with mental disabilities who have a tendency to incinerate should be treated unequivocally in a psychiatric clinic. If they are not isolated, the patients themselves and the surrounding people can suffer, because a person with delusional frustration and obsessions can not control his actions and does not realize the danger that he and others are carrying.
But what about those with whom pyromania develops as a separate pathology. Whatever it was, but the uncontrollable passion for incendiary and maniacal enthusiasm for fire in themselves are a psychic deviation. With this, both psychotherapists and psychologists agree.
If a person is not able to control his passion and realize the danger of his actions, then he is dangerous to others and himself. Therefore, the best way to prevent arsons during the treatment period and prevent the disease from developing is the isolation of the patient within the walls of a specialized medical institution, where he will receive psychological and psychiatric help.
The main task of psychologists in this case is to identify the cause of the formation of pathological passion and bring to the patient, as far as his actions are reckless and dangerous. This is precisely the complexity of the psychological work, because pyromaniacs do not go too well to contact, do not consider their actions criminal, and do not see the need for treatment, since they consider themselves mentally normal.
With alcoholics, the pyromaniac is even more difficult. They tend to deny if not the fact of arson, then their involvement in it. It is very difficult to find a common language with them in this matter. And it's even harder to explain to them that they need treatment.
Probably the easiest way to work with children suffering from pyromania. True work of a psychologist and psychotherapist in this case should be especially delicate. You can not punish a little pyroman for those actions, the danger of which he does not realize, because this is a child, and much is unclear to him. Classes must take place in a friendly manner. It is important to distract the child from the obsession with the fire, find a new passion for him, explaining how dangerous the game is with fire.
Teenage pyromania gives in to treatment is much more difficult, because it is often based on a deep psychological trauma or an example of adults. Youthful negativism does not allow to see the whole essence of the problem and to understand what causes inadequate behavior.
If the reason for deviations in behavior are mental abnormalities, paranoia or excessive aggression, then drug treatment will be included in the treatment program. In other cases, emphasis is placed on cognitive therapy, hypnosis, and auto-training. After identifying the problems that torment the adolescent, various ways of responding to the situation are being worked out.
When the reason for pyromania and vandalism is the example of adults with an antisocial orientation of thinking and behavior, it is very important to protect the adolescent from their influence, to explain all the irrationality and danger of antisocial behavior, and what punishment follows.