Fire - a fascinating sight, to which it is difficult to remain indifferent. No wonder they say that this is one of three things that you can watch forever. And the craving for fire in man has been laid down since childhood. First pranks with matches, determination of what objects and substances are burning and which are not, then games and songs by the fire, which gradually flow into adult life, gatherings at a lighted fireplace, etc., etc. After all, fire for a person is warmth and comfort. So, there is nothing shameful in that a person admires the bright tongues of the flame, unless this is certainly a fire, arranged by the observer himself only for the sake of pleasure. Since this hobby is no longer the norm of behavior. This is a psychic abnormality, which has its own name, and a name for it pyromania.
The very name of the pathology consists of two parts. "Pyro" denotes fire, and "mania" is an excessive, almost uncontrollable and logical explanation for something. For pyromanians, the object of worship is fire, which occupies all the thoughts of a person and is the engine of his actions.
The pathological passion to set fire to, observe fire and even fight with it pushes a person to inadequate actions, from which he, incidentally, does not receive any benefit (and does not even strive!). It is this peculiarity of people with the diagnosis of "pyromania" that distinguishes them from ordinary avengers, hooligans and swindlers, pursuing the goal of harming someone, getting material benefits, and concealing signs of machinations.
Statistics argue that the passion for incendiary is more characteristic of men than women. In the opinion of psychophysiologists, the enthusiasm for the male population is directly related to the production of the male hormone testosterone. It is this hormone that causes the search for thrills in adolescence, when it is most actively developed. Some adolescent boys during puberty make up for the need for such feelings through the organization of arsons. Here you and the danger, and the risk, and the opportunity to show themselves, and most importantly feel the power over the elements and people.
As for women, pyromaniacs among them are the exception to the rules. Usually, such women have other mental disabilities or manias. They are prone to aimless theft (kleptomania) and illegible in sexual relations (deviations of the sexual plan).
It is worth saying that pyromania in its pure form is a rarity. Usually it is accompanied by other pathologies of the psyche (for example, schizophrenia, obsessive states), which reduces control over what is happening, reduces the reaction of inhibition of the nervous system, does not allow realistic assessment of risks and consequences.
Risk factors for the development of pyromania, in addition to humiliation and disadvantages of upbringing is considered to be living in an incomplete family. At present, many children are brought up without a father who once left his family and the child's desire is to return the pope in any way: attracting attention, creating situations threatening the child's life, which can include arson. A child or a teenager does not fully realize the full dangers of such behavior, nor does he think about the fact that a father may not even know about the danger that threatens his child.
In psychology, pyromania refers to disorders of impulsive behavior. Usually people tend to initially think about their actions and their consequences. Those. The impulse (or the desire to do something) comes across a wall of reflection. If a person realizes the danger or unattractiveness of the desire that has arisen, which is the engine of actions, the impulse fades away without becoming an action.
Impulsive people are those whose actions are ahead of reasonable thoughts. Consideration of motives of an action occurs already later, when discharge is obtained. Something similar is noted in pyromancers. They have an unrestrained, unmotivated desire to set fire to something, and the sight of a blazing fire evokes delight and satisfaction in the souls of such people. At the same time, pleasure brings not only the contemplation of the flame and the very moment of arson, but also the preparation for the event, which absorbs the person completely. Drawing up the plan of the event, thinking over the moments, anticipating the event already makes the pyroman happy.
The pathogenesis of this phenomenon by scientists has not been fully studied. However, many agree on the idea that pyromania is not a full-fledged disease, but only a symptom of a certain mental pathology, against which it is developing. Therefore, some people, despite all their charm with a fiery extravaganza, do not experience special fire worship, while others are obsessed with the idea of becoming his lord.
There are several theories that explain man's craving for fire. The first one dates back to the 1920s. Its founder was the well-known psychologist Sigmund Freud, who saw in the fire a symbol of sexuality. It is not for nothing that the suppository has become an indispensable attribute of an intimate romantic atmosphere.
Fire is first and foremost warmth. It is this feeling that takes possession of a person during sexual arousal. He feels a pleasant warmth spreading through his body. The form of fire and movement of tongues of flame in Freud is associated with the male sexual member.
According to this theory Pyro Pyro does not need the benefit of the deed. The motive of their actions is the desire to get sexual satisfaction, which he experiences by watching the fire. True, this theory does not quite explain the obsession with thoughts of flame and the pleasure of preparing arson, when the person himself does not feel the warmth, except through self-suggestion, causes imaginary sensations.
The second theory goes back to its roots. Even ancient people worshiped fire as a source of warmth, light and coziness. This attitude to fire was formed at the level of instinct, which in the process of evolution was partially lost. Attitude to fire has become more pragmatic, but not at all. Some people, according to this theory, still do not have the strength to fight instinctive craving, so they try to take out, at every opportunity, the object of their affection.
With the help of this theory, it is possible to explain the impulsiveness of the behavior of pyromancers, which can be set on fire without preliminary preparation, simply at the behest of the heart, while not fully realizing the dangerous consequences of their actions. But the behavior of pyromaniac can be different. They can carefully plan arson for a long time, choosing the right place and time, without experiencing a negative attitude to the victims of their actions, and then actively participate in extinguishing the fire and eliminating its consequences, getting no less pleasure from it.
This behavior can be explained by another theory, which considers pyromania as one of the opportunities for dominance. A person who wants to be a leader but does not have the appropriate qualities, with the help of a fire prepared by him, gets the opportunity for some time to subordinate to his will not only fire, but also other people that are forced against their desire to fight the flame.
According to the same theory, pyromania is an opportunity for self-expression for people rejected by the society. Thus, they get rid of the burden of negative emotions and feelings about their insolvency.
Taking active part in extinguishing a fire, pyromaniacs feel their power over fire, their significance. It is this moment in the firefighter's profession that attracts such people who gladly go to work in the fire department. Moreover, they throw up work to their colleagues themselves, personally arranging fires and heroically participating in their liquidation. But in this way you can get the respect of other people.
Symptoms of the pyromanias
Usually, when preparing arson, people pursue a certain goal. Some have revenge, others have a desire to harm, others want to get material benefits from it. At the same time, the person receives satisfaction not from the preparation for the operation, but from the result and reaction to it.
Pyromanians are different. The only vague goal of these people is getting pleasure from contemplating fire (in some cases, sexual pleasure) and the ability to defeat it. They are led into a state of indescribable ecstasy by the very idea of arson, which they relish in all their details. A person can look at the fire for hours, think about the plan of arson, time and place, mentally draw pictures of the raging elements, and from this already get some satisfaction.
When a man with pyromania gets the opportunity to carry out his plans, and he succeeds, a real euphoria sets in. Thus, the pyromancer feels happy both during preparation and at the moment of the realization of the conceived.
Pyromaniacs have no idea of harming someone or taking advantage of arson, which is different from ordinary people. Many of them are characterized by naive impulsiveness, which does not allow one to soberly assess all the riskiness and insecurity of the undertaking. But even those who understand this, do not realize until the end, why it can not be done.
Pleasure to piromanists delivers not only the preparation and the process of arson, but also the opportunity to participate in extinguishing the fire. For this reason, they show a keen interest not only in the means capable of reproducing the fire, but also in the objects and equipment used in the fire fighting (fire extinguishers, fire hoses, specially equipped cars).
But to call a person a pyroman only because he likes to build a fire and look at it, you can not. Like not everyone who works in the fire department, exhibits a pathological passion for fire and firefighting. In order to diagnose pyromania, a person should have a certain symptomatology.
The first signs of pyromania are the passion for everything related to fire, and the propensity to unmotivated incendiary.
In order to suspect pyromania from a person, one should note in his behavior the following signs:
repeated attempts to commit arson (successful and unsuccessful) without a specific purpose or motive, the goal is arson itself, while there is an element of spontaneity both in the choice of the object and in the very desire to set something on fire (at least 2 such cases),
arson can be as well planned as a result of obsessive thoughts about the fire, and carried out under the impact of a sudden pulse,
lack of personal gain, material interest, motives for revenge or envy, do not express a protest, do not aim to hide the traces of criminal activity,
there are confident actions, without unnecessary fuss, despite the excitement and some tension on the eve of the event,
there is a sense of relief and some kind of euphoria after the arson, as well as after its suppression, which is often celebrated by pyromaniacs,
there is a great inexplicable interest in things that are somehow connected with fire, reflections on the themes of fire, the ways of extracting and extinguishing it,
the pleasure associated with the contemplation of a burning flame is noted, because of which pyromaniacs are often present where a fire occurs, the cause of which is not they,
there are false calls of firefighters, reports of arson that are not under the soil, which are also characteristic of some pyromaniacs,
markedly sexual arousal at the sight of a blazing fire,
there are constant obsessive thoughts about the fire and how to do it,
immediately before the arson and during it there is an affective behavior, a person is poorly controlled in the process of achieving satisfaction,
there is a fanatical attitude towards fire, so a person can admire the flames for hours,
with true pyromania, there are no delusions and hallucinations that could trigger arsons.
Very often, pyromaniacs are not only instigators of the fire, but also actively help to extinguish it, sometimes just for the sake of it choosing a fireman's path. This moment is also a distinguishing feature of pyromancers who do not try to hide from the crime scene, as criminals do, performing arson for a specific purpose, and not for the sake of arson and the pleasure received from it. On the contrary, they are attentive observers of the fiery action or active fire extinguishers.
Pyromania in children
Such a pathology as pyromania, in most cases, begins in childhood. Children under 3 years rarely pay attention to the fire and are not interested in ways to ignite it. But since the age of three, this moment is especially interesting for kids, so they are so eager to reach for matches and lighters.
Who among us in my childhood did not try to light a match, burn the paper, poplar fluff or bird feather, make a fire? All these manifestations are not signs of pyromania in children until they take on a chronic form.
Usually the interest in matches and fire in kids fades very quickly after several attempts to extract the flame on their own or something to set fire to. To replace the games with fire and sit around the fire come other interests. And only piromis remain true to their hobbies. Virtually all the games of pyromaniacs are directly or indirectly associated with fire and means for its kindling or extinguishing.
It is worth paying attention to the child, if he often reaches out to matches, in a conversation he constantly mentions a flame, a fire, arson, ie. All that is connected with fire, the theme of fire is increasingly flickering in his drawings. The task of parents is to show the baby to a psychologist who can recognize the pathology and correct the child's behavior in time.
We must understand that this is not just a wish. Children's pyromania has its own unpleasant characteristics. The fact is that the sense of danger in toddlers is not yet developed enough, so they do not realize how much they risk themselves, and what harm they bring to others. For a child, playing with fire is only "harmless" entertainment, even if this craving for fire is considered anomalous by adults.
Even worse, if pyromania develops in adolescence, which is characterized by negativity, denial of prohibitions and some cruelty. During this period, it is very difficult to distinguish a true pyroman from a teenager trying to attract attention in such an unnatural way, as arson, the use of firecrackers and other actions with fire.
Psychologists believe that pyromania, developing in adolescence, is even more dangerous than in children's. It has a more destructive and even cruel character. Adolescents tend to understand that they will have to answer for their actions, but this only provokes their ardor, because in the eyes of friends and peers they (according to the adolescents themselves) will look like heroes.
Arson in adolescents is often a manifestation of negativity. Thus, they try to resist common behavior, prove their rightness, stand out from the "gray masses". But this teenage behavior can not always be associated with pyromania. If obsessive thoughts about fire are absent, and arson is only a way to prove something (ie has a certain clear purpose), it is unlikely that such a teenager can be described as a pyromaniac.
By the way, the combination of such qualities in a child or adolescent as an abnormal passion for incineration and cruelty towards animals, according to psychologists, is likely to indicate that in adulthood he will often display aggression and apply violence against people.
Such a phenomenon as pyromania does not have a clear classification, in fact, despite the similarity of symptoms, it can proceed against a background of various mental abnormalities and in each case have its own particular manifestations.
If we take into account the fact that a small number of pyromancers do not have any mental deviations, this part of people can be identified as a special group, and the pathological desire for fire and arson is called primary pyromania. It must be understood that mania developed in such people in itself, but did not appear as one of the symptoms of mental pathology.
If pyromania is manifested against the background of mental disorders, it can be designated as secondary to the underlying disease. So the propensity for arson is peculiar to people with obsessive states, schizophrenics. In schizophrenia, arsons are not typical behavior, but they can provoke delusions and hallucinations, from which the person will again try to get rid of by fire, finding protection and satisfaction in it.
Often pyromania occurs against a background of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this case, it has its own peculiarities. Here there is awareness of one's absurd behavior during arson, which has no purpose or benefit. However, a person can not resist his impulsive desires, i.e. Continues to perform meaningless in terms of logic actions.
Abnormal enthusiasm for fire can manifest itself in people with psychosexual deviations, for which fire, as a symbol of sexuality and power, assumes the role of a kind of idol (sacrificial fire), which intensifies sexual arousal right up to orgasm.
Pyromania can also be observed against the background of organic brain damage, manifesting itself in the loss of the ability to recognize the consequences of their actions. For such a person set fire to - innocent fun, which, in his opinion, is not dangerous.
Pyromania is often combined with alcoholism. And this is a real explosive mixture, because control over their desires and actions in alcoholics-pyromaniacs is practically absent, the consequences of actions are not fully realized. At the same time, a person often does not consider himself guilty of arson, moreover, he speaks about it as sincerely, as if he himself believes in his own innocence.
In individual subspecies, children's and adolescent pyromania can be distinguished, which have their own characteristics and are somewhat different from adults.
Studies in the field of child and adolescent pyromania allowed to separate juvenile pyromaniacs into 2 groups:
The first group includes children 5-10 years old, for whom incendiary is a kind of game, an experiment with fire. These children are distinguished by an inquisitive mind and often play the role of "great scientist" or "master of fire", not realizing the whole danger of such fun.
Children from this group do not have mental or cognitive abnormalities, and in this connection the group is called non-pathological.
The second group of children and adolescents differs in that for them arson is not a game, but an opportunity to express themselves, throw out their aggression, ask for help, etc. This group of young people has several subgroups:
Children and adolescents, for whom arson is a kind of cry for help. Thus, the teenager tries to draw the attention of the elders to the problems that are impossible for him (divorcing parents and leaving one of their families, violence in the family, etc.). These problems are often accompanied by protracted depression and nervous breakdowns.
Teenagers, for whom arson is one of the manifestations of aggression. Arson in this case implies damage to property, and no matter to whom it belongs. In addition, such adolescents are prone to vandalism and even robbery if they are motivated by hatred.
Children and adolescents with mental disorders (psychotics, paranoia, etc.).
Children and adolescents with behavioral (cognitive) disorders. Basically, these are impulsive children with weakened neurological control.
Participants of specific groups, in their behavior, are oriented toward asocial adults.
The division into groups and subgroups in the case of child pyromania is conditional, since different motives can move the same teenager.
Complications and consequences
The easiest way to deal with children's pyromania, because in the early stages of pathology it is always easier to overcome pathological dependence. In most cases, several sessions with a psychologist are sufficient, which will correct the child's behavior and help overcome the anomalous craving for fire. In addition, if pyromania is a symptom of other as yet latent abnormalities, early detection of them will help effective and timely treatment.
Pyromania syndrome has a tendency to develop. If, in the early stages of the pathology, arsons occur from case to case, then gradually pyromanus tastes, it needs more and more positive sensations that fire gives. With the development of the syndrome, cases of unmotivated arson become more frequent, and the disease becomes much more difficult to treat, because a person develops a clear association of fire with unlimited pleasure, which he can so easily obtain.
As we have already said, the danger of child pyromania is its inability to foresee the consequences of its actions. The game of a child with matches can end badly not only for strangers, but for the child himself, who does not see a clear danger to his life.
A similar situation is observed in adolescence. Even realizing the consequences of their actions for other people, they often reject the danger of the venture for themselves, risking even more. Successful attempts at arson, when the teenager not only did not suffer, but also came out "dry out of the water", only increase the excitement, making it less cautious, and thus increasing the risk of tragedy.
Pyromania on the background of alcoholism and mental abnormalities is no less dangerous than children's, because the patient does not control his actions, which can harm himself and harm other people. In this case, the pathologies neighboring in one organism only aggravate the course of each other, causing various complications.
The danger of pyromania is also in the fact that each of us can become a victim of a man with a fanatical attitude towards fire. The choice of an object for arson occurs spontaneously, so the victims, who may accidentally be at this moment next to the object or inside it, will not even suspect that a crime will be committed against them. There is no motive for a crime.
Pyromanians often do not even think about the fact that people or animals can suffer from their actions, and in a state of passion at the moment of committing an arson it is already difficult for them to stop even if awareness of the danger for others arrives late.
Diagnostics of the pyromanias
It is quite difficult to diagnose such a controversial pathology as pyromania. After all, despite the fact that in psychology and psychiatry pyromania is considered a serious chronic disorder of the psyche, there are doubts whether it is worth singling out this condition as a separate pathology or consider it one of the manifestations of other disorders of the psyche characterized by low self-control. These disorders include nervous bulimia, borderline personality disorder, antisocial disorder and some other pathologies.
Disputes over what is really pyromania: a disease or one of the symptoms, go to this day. However, the problem exists, and therefore we must look for its solution.
At first glance, it is almost impossible to distinguish pyroman from an individual with antisocial behavior, if one does not try to understand the motives of his actions and those feelings that he experiences. It turns out in a normal conversation with a psychologist.
The following 6 points are the criteria by which a true pyroman can be suspected in a person:
One or more purposeful, thoughtful and "lived" arsons were committed by the patient.
Before the arson, the patient experienced a tense excitement connected with anticipation of something important.
In the story of the patient about the event there are notes of admiration for fire, a kind of fanaticism. He describes with pleasure and admiration all the nuances of the fire he has set up.
There is a fact of getting pleasure from arson. The person is relieved after the fire is arranged, the previous stress is released, giving way to pleasure.
The patient has no mercenary or criminal motives, there is only an impulsive desire to enjoy, having committed arson.
A person who commits arsons has no hallucinations or delusional disorder, he does not have antisocial behavior, he did not have manic episodes.
The remaining symptoms, which were described earlier, are not so revealing in the diagnosis of pyromania, but they can also tell something about the personality of the patient.
During diagnostic activities, one must be able to distinguish a true pathological passion for fire from actions that were caused by other motives or committed under the influence of a disease:
Intentional arson, the purpose of which was revenge, gain or concealment of traces of crime or fraud, if it is committed by a mentally healthy person.
Arson as one of the manifestations of deviant behavior, which includes also theft, absenteeism, outbreaks of aggression in adolescence.
Arson, organized by a sociopath, who does not care how his actions affect other people.
Arson under the influence of hallucinations or "voices", which sometimes happens in the diagnosis of "schizophrenia" or delusional disorders.
Arson in organic disorders of the psyche, characterized by a decrease in self-control and underestimation of the consequences.
Piromane sincerely does not consider arson as a crime, but not because, due to mental pathology, he can not comprehend the depth of the deed, but because he initially does not want anyone to harm, does not try to cause harm or cause damage. And this is the whole problem and essence of true pyromania.
Treatment of the pyromanias
Pyromania is a rather complicated and contradictory diagnosis. On the one hand, this is an independent pathology, which is expressed in uncontrollable passion for fire and everything that is associated with it. But on the other hand, this pathology is rarely found in its pure form. Most often, pyromania is isolated as one of the secondary symptoms of mental illness and organic brain damage.
It is clear that a general approach to the treatment of patients with true pyromania and pathologies of the psyche, and even more so with cerebral diseases, there can not be. That is why the diagnosis of pathology is so important, which helps to calculate what drives the actions of a particular pyromaniac.
The difficulty in diagnosing pathology lies in the fact that when confronted with a pyromaniac in action, it is not always possible to immediately figure out how much this person is mentally healthy or sick. If in the process of diagnostic measures there were no known mental pathologies, including various psychosexual disorders, you should pay attention to the presence or absence of alcohol intoxication, the intellectual level of the patient, the presence of organic brain lesions and other factors that can clarify the situation.
If the patient is a child or a teenager it is important to study in which circle he or she rotates (the status of parents, family environment, friends, youth groups, etc.). Adolescents are very often badly influenced by adolescents who purposefully organize asocial teenage clubs and sects, which sometimes practice pogroms, robbery, arson, and vandalism. A teenager who does not have a relationship with peers or has big problems in the family, it's so easy to involve in such organizations, where he can throw out all the accumulated negative.
As for patients with mental disabilities, it must be borne in mind that schizophrenics perform arson "not on their own". They are guided by "voices", ordering to commit a crime. Or, with the help of fire, they try to get rid of certain entities that are to them in the form of hallucinations.
With the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, again, there is an element of imposing thoughts and actions by some other-worldly powers. A person understands that his actions do not make sense, but can not help but obey the influence of non-existent forces.
In both cases, pyromania in patients can not be cured until the symptoms of obsessive behavior, delusions and hallucinations are reduced. Usually in such cases, in addition to psychotherapy, hypnosis and medication (neuroleptics, sedatives, antipsychotics) are used.
In people with deviations in the psychosexual sphere, incendiary is one of the ways of sexual relaxation. In the therapy of such patients, psychological, psychotherapeutic and social techniques are used. Especially indicative in this regard are hypnosis, auto-training, behavioral therapy. It is very important to show the patient that there are other, not criminal ways to achieve sexual satisfaction, which in society are considered normal.
With organic brain lesions, a person simply does not realize all the inadequacy and danger of his actions. He is like a child, he can not assess the risks. In this case, again, it is necessary to treat not the pyromania itself, but its causes, i.e. Brain. In organic brain diseases, various groups of drugs are used: psychostimulating and nootropic drugs, neuroprotectants, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, massage, physical therapy and, of course, work with a psychologist.
Patients with mental disabilities who have a tendency to incinerate should be treated unequivocally in a psychiatric clinic. If they are not isolated, the patients themselves and the surrounding people can suffer, because a person with delusional frustration and obsessions can not control his actions and does not realize the danger that he and others are carrying.
But what about those with whom pyromania develops as a separate pathology. Whatever it was, but the uncontrollable passion for incendiary and maniacal enthusiasm for fire in themselves are a psychic deviation. With this, both psychotherapists and psychologists agree.
If a person is not able to control his passion and realize the danger of his actions, then he is dangerous to others and himself. Therefore, the best way to prevent arsons during the treatment period and prevent the disease from developing is the isolation of the patient within the walls of a specialized medical institution, where he will receive psychological and psychiatric help.
The main task of psychologists in this case is to identify the cause of the formation of pathological passion and bring to the patient, as far as his actions are reckless and dangerous. This is precisely the complexity of the psychological work, because pyromaniacs do not go too well to contact, do not consider their actions criminal, and do not see the need for treatment, since they consider themselves mentally normal.
With alcoholics, the pyromaniac is even more difficult. They tend to deny if not the fact of arson, then their involvement in it. It is very difficult to find a common language with them in this matter. And it's even harder to explain to them that they need treatment.
Probably the easiest way to work with children suffering from pyromania. True work of a psychologist and psychotherapist in this case should be especially delicate. You can not punish a little pyroman for those actions, the danger of which he does not realize, because this is a child, and much is unclear to him. Classes must take place in a friendly manner. It is important to distract the child from the obsession with the fire, find a new passion for him, explaining how dangerous the game is with fire.
Teenage pyromania gives in to treatment is much more difficult, because it is often based on a deep psychological trauma or an example of adults. Youthful negativism does not allow to see the whole essence of the problem and to understand what causes inadequate behavior.
If the reason for deviations in behavior are mental abnormalities, paranoia or excessive aggression, then drug treatment will be included in the treatment program. In other cases, emphasis is placed on cognitive therapy, hypnosis, and auto-training. After identifying the problems that torment the adolescent, various ways of responding to the situation are being worked out.
When the reason for pyromania and vandalism is the example of adults with an antisocial orientation of thinking and behavior, it is very important to protect the adolescent from their influence, to explain all the irrationality and danger of antisocial behavior, and what punishment follows.
Pyromania, like many mental disorders, is virtually impossible to prevent. The only way to slow down the development of the disease is to stop it at the very beginning. Noticing a pyromanian is not so difficult, even in childhood, because both kids and adults, excessively carried away by the theme of fire and fire, stand out among others.
If a child talks a lot about fire, draws it, constantly reaches out to matches - this is an occasion to show it to a specialist. You do not have to wait for the baby to commit a serious offense by setting up a real fire. The earlier a psychologist conducts a correction, the more favorable will be the outlook for the future. After all, small children are much more persuasive than adolescents with their way of denying everything or adults who consider themselves to be healthy people and do not consider it necessary to be treated and change their habits.
Pyromania occurs very rarely in adulthood. Most often this is a missed time, in time not noticed pathology, roots resting in childhood. To treat such pathology is much more difficult. This is a long and laborious work of many specialists. Nevertheless, the prognosis in this case is not as rosy as in the treatment of children. In the overwhelming majority of cases, it is still possible to achieve improvement, a person forgets about his passion and lives a normal life. However, according to statistics, the probability of recourse still remains, so some patients return to their "fiery" occupation.
Last update: 26.06.2018
Found an error? Select it and press Ctrl + Enter.
Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"