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Physician of functional diagnostics

In the human body, everything is interconnected, if the function of one organ is violated, the work of many other organs and systems is changing. Functional communication affects not only the state of health, but also the course of the disease, especially information about this in the chronic form of the disease, when the results of the tests are within the limits of the norm, and the person still feels unwell. Find out how the bodies cope with their functions, their adaptive capabilities, resources and the mechanism of development of pathology helps the physician of functional diagnostics.

Who is a functional diagnostician?

If a patient is prescribed a referral for diagnosis, he often asks himself the question, what is the difference between a specialist who will conduct a survey from a therapist and who is a functional diagnostician?

The doctor-diagnostician is a specialist with a higher medical education, postgraduate training in the specialty "Functional diagnostics". The physician should possess the following amount of knowledge and skills, applying them in practice: 

  • Fundamentals of the legislation of the Ministry of Health and all documents regulating the activities of the medical institution.
  • Etiology, pathogenetic mechanism of development of pathological processes, clinical symptoms and specificity of the course, development of diseases. All the laws of normal and pathological physiology, methods of system analysis of physiological functions.
  • Rules and techniques for identifying common and specific symptoms of major diseases.
  • Clinical manifestations, symptomatology of emergency conditions and ways of providing assistance.
  • Principles of complex therapy of major pathologies, diseases.
  • General principles and fundamental principles, methods and methods of clinical, laboratory, instrumental diagnostics of the functions of organs and systems of the human body.
  • Rules for determining the basic functional methods and methods for examining the patient to clarify the primary diagnosis.
  • Classification and criteria for metrological characteristics of the equipment used.
  • General rules for the organization and instrumentation of the department of functional diagnostics.
  • Rules and regulations for the formulation of relevant medical records and records.

The physician of functional diagnostics can have qualifying categories - the second, the first and the higher.

When should I go to the Functional Diagnostic?

Ideally, every reasonable person should understand the value of his main resource - health, and regularly undergo a medical examination, including a comprehensive examination of the functions of organs and systems. If this is done, the question "when to go to a physician for functional diagnostics" simply does not arise. Unfortunately, most often patients get into the diagnosis room in the direction of the attending physician, that is, when the first symptoms of the disease are already appearing.

It is also advisable to consider a comprehensive check of your health before such events: 

  • Before you go to Delney travel, especially in countries with unusual climate for the body, conditions.
  • In advance of various health-improving events - a trip to resorts, sanatoriums and so on (often functional diagnostics and other studies are mandatory).
  • Before starting sports and fitness.
  • A comprehensive examination is necessary for those who adhere to conscious parenting, conception.

Such preventive measures help to assess the level of work of internal organs and interrelated systems, as well as to exclude the risks of possible complications and exacerbations. In the case of the conception of a baby, a functional examination of both parents will help to correct the state of health and intelligently plan the appearance of the desired baby.

What tests should I take when I go to the Physician for functional diagnostics?

As a rule, research of functions is carried out when the patient already has clinical manifestations of a particular disease. What tests to hand over to the doctor of functional diagnostics is decided by the treating specialist, it all depends on the patient's condition and the pathology form - acute, chronic or initial stage. It happens that functional studies are conducted before laboratory tests or in parallel with them.

There are several types of functional methods for which preliminary analyzes are really needed, for example: 

  • Evaluation of the function of external respiration - diffuse lung capacity. It is necessary to donate blood to determine the level of hemoglobin.
  • Bicycle ergometry requires a preliminary electrocardiogram and echocardiography.
  • Transesophageal echocardiography - the results of FGD are needed.
  • Spirography requires fluorography and X-ray of the lungs.

No tests and special training are required for the following types of studies: 

  • Ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
  • Ultrasound of lymph nodes.
  • Ultrasound of the salivary glands.
  • Duplex ultrasound of the vessels of the cervical department.
  • Duplex ultrasound scanning of vessels of the upper and lower extremities.
  • Echocardiography.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of an analysis of all diagnostic information, therefore it is impossible to say what is more important. All types of examination are significant and assess the state of the body according to the task set by the doctor.

What diagnostic methods does the Functional Diagnostic Physician use?

The main methods of examination of functional diagnostics can be divided into 5 categories: 

  1. ECG - clinical electrocardiography:
  • Monitoring of daily electrocardiography.
  • Stress tests.
  • Vector cardiography.
  • Pericardial mapping.
  • Phonocardiography.
  • Determination of heart rate options.
  1. Functional state of external breath: 
  • Inhalation provocative tests.
  • Graphical recording of changes in lung volume - spirography.
  • Evaluation of the degree of airway obstruction - peakflowmetry.
  • Evaluation of the functional state of the lungs - bodipletizmography.
  1. Assessment and analysis of the functional state of the nervous system (central and peripheral): 
  • EEG is an electroencephalogram.
  • Determination of the causes of sleep disorders, the syndrome of apnea - PSG or polysomnography.
  • VP - evoked potentials of the brain.
  • Electromyography.
  • TMS - transcranial magnetic stimulation.
  • Echoencephalography.
  • VKSP is a method of induced cutaneous sympathetic potentials.
  • Functional tests.
  1. Ultrasound of the heart - echocardiography.
  2. Assessment of the state of the vascular system: 
  • Rheography.
  • Oscillography.
  • Dopplerography.
  • Phlebography.
  • Vaginography.
  • Load test method.

To answer the question what diagnostic methods the Physician uses for functional diagnostics is rather difficult, as this direction of medicine develops very intensively and with each year it replenishes with new, more perfect and accurate methods of early detection of pathologies. Also the choice of the method is directly connected with the body, the system, their functional interrelation.

In addition to the above mentioned methods, doctors use the following: 

  • Dopplerography of the heart.
  • NPV is transesophageal pacemaking.
  • Variational pulsometry.
  • Bicycle ergometry - ECG with exercise.
  • Thermal imaging diagnostics.
  • Pneumotachometry.
  • Rheoplethysmography.
  • Dopplerazography of the brain.
  • Duplex, triplex ultrasound diagnosis of blood vessels (arteries, veins).
  • Acoustic impedance measurement.
  • Endoradiosonding.

What does the Functional Diagnostic Physician do?

The main task of the doctor of the department of functional diagnostics is to conduct a thorough and if possible comprehensive examination for the purpose of early detection of pathology, that is, to study the condition of the organ or system, to exclude or to identify a possible disorder until the development of obvious clinical symptoms and changes in the body.

What does the doctor of functional diagnostics do in stages? 

  • Examination of patients at risk to identify the disease at an early stage and prevent its development.
  • Identification and evaluation of anatomical, as well as functional abnormalities in the work of organs and systems at different stages of the disease.
  • A survey aimed at the dynamic observation of changes in the state of the body during therapeutic interventions.
  • Carrying out of tests - loading, medicamentous, functional for an adequate choice of effective therapy.
  • Evaluation and analysis of therapeutic efficacy.
  • Examination of patients before routine and unscheduled surgery.
  • Dispensary examinations.

In addition, the doctor draws up and issues conclusions with the results of the surveys, participates in collegial analysis of complex clinical cases, advises colleagues on his specialization - functional diagnostics, constantly masteres the latest developments, methods and equipment, takes part in specialized events (courses, forums, congresses ).

What kind of diseases is treated by a functional diagnostician?

The physician of functional diagnostics does not deal with treatment and does not prescribe medication, he has a different task. If the question arises, what diseases the doctor treats, then it is rather a question of what organs and systems he is researching. These can be such types of surveys: 

  • Examination and evaluation of respiratory function 
  • Cardiological functional diagnostics.
  • Functional diagnostics of digestive organs.
  • Functional diagnosis of the kidneys.
  • Endocrinological functional examination.
  • Gynecological functional diagnostics.
  • Neurological functional diagnostics.

As a rule, the patient enters the functional diagnostics room in the direction of the attending physician - a therapist or a doctor of narrow specialization. The physician of functional diagnostics conducts an examination in order to clarify, correct, confirm the preliminary diagnosis, determined earlier. The diagnosis is made on the basis of an analysis of all the results, so a functional study is an aid in diagnosis, rather than treatment of the disease.

Doctor's advice for functional diagnostics

Functional diagnostics refers to absolutely safe and painless types of examination. Before each procedure, the doctor conducts a patient conversation, explaining the essence of the method and how the process will occur. This not only reduces the anxiety of the patient, but also helps to qualitatively evaluate the functional state of the organism, because highly sensitive devices react sensitively to any vegetative changes on the part of the examined person. In this regard, in addition to the basic recommendations for training, almost all diagnosticians advise the patient to exclude any provoking factors, both physical and emotional. Specific preparatory rules also exist, they depend on which body will be evaluated and in what way. When carrying out certain procedures it is not recommended to eat, with other similar restrictions not available.

However, the main recommendations refer to another issue that is topical for the modern person, and the name is prevention.

Not only physicians of the department of functional diagnostics, but also all other specialists related to medicine, are adherents of preventive, early detection of pathologies, because such a timely assessment of the work of human organs and systems allows to identify the disease and stop it at the initial stage of development.

The advice of a physician of functional diagnostics, first of all, concerns the well-known statement "Bene dignoscitur bene curatur", which in translation means - is well defined, therefore, it is well treated. A comprehensive study of the functions and resources of systems, the state of organs is needed not only for those who have already fallen ill, but also for those who are listed in the category of relatively healthy people. Modern technologies, methods and perfect diagnostic equipment allow to reveal with the greatest accuracy the minimal, initial changes, violations at the functional level, which means a unique opportunity for quick and effective treatment.

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Medical expert editor

Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich

Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"

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