- Malignant neuroleptic syndrome.
Most experts are of the opinion that the malignant neuroleptic syndrome has mainly a central etiology. It follows that most of the disorders occur in the subcortex of the brain.
Nevertheless, an important role in the process is played by the effect of antipsychotic drugs on skeletal muscles, which can lead to the disintegration of myocytes (the so-called rhabdomyolysis) and the blocking of peripheral dopamine receptors.
Neuroleptics potentiate blockade of central dopamine receptors, which leads to significant disorders of motor activity, with such an important feature as muscle rigidity.
The change in the metabolism of dopamine, in turn, is a trigger mechanism in the violation of the autonomic nervous system and cardiac activity.
Simultaneously, almost all metabolic processes are violated, the permeability of the blood-brain membrane changes. The reactions of intoxication are started, the cerebral edema begins. As a result - the emergence of mental disorders and failures at a conscious level.
- Extrapyramidal neuroleptic syndrome.
Extrapyramidal neuroleptic syndrome is a combination of neurologic symptoms, which are manifested primarily by motor disorders, due to the use of neuroleptic drugs. This term also includes disorders that are provoked by treatment with other drugs that interfere with dopaminergic activity: antidepressants, antiarrhythmics, cholinomimetics, lithium-based drugs, anticonvulsant and anti-Parkinsonics are included in such drugs.
The syndrome can be accompanied by all extrapyramidal disorders: parkinsonism, trembling of limbs, dystonia, chorea, tics, myoclonic cramps, etc. Such symptoms are combined with any mental abnormalities.
- Neuroleptic deficiency syndrome.
This syndrome has many other names - in particular, it is often called a neuroleptic defect, or neuroleptic-induced deficiency syndrome. The development of the syndrome is often mistaken for schizophrenia, because of similar signs:
- general retardation;
- slow speech reproduction;
- abulic syndrome;
- lack of motivational and proactive factors;
- isolation, withdrawal into oneself;
- inattention and memory impairment;
- decreased emotionality;
- indifference, absolute composure.
Often this state is complicated by psychotic reactions in the form of depersonalization and derealization. At the same time there are extrapyramidal disorders, a depressed state (depression, bad mood), irritability, sleep disturbances, phobias.
- Acute neuroleptic syndrome.
At the heart of the neuroleptic syndrome lies an acute dopamine deficiency - the course of this state is always increasing and rapid. The clinical picture is growing, reaching its limit for 1-3 days, but in some cases the process is more intense - for several hours.
That's why help with neuroleptic syndrome should be provided as soon as possible and faster - because it depends not only on health, but also on the patient's life.
The so-called chronic neuroleptic syndrome refers to the period of late dyskinesia, which happens in about 20% of patients who regularly undergo treatment with neuroleptics, as well as in 5% of patients who take these drugs throughout the year. In other words, the chronic course of the syndrome includes those disorders that do not have a tendency to regress during six months after the end of treatment with neuroleptics.