The pathologically small size of the thyroid gland is not so common in life, but this "small" defect, which is virtually imperceptible in appearance, becomes a problem of appreciable size and is worth it to talk about. In medicine, there is even a special concept of "hypoplasia of the thyroid gland," which reflects the state of affairs as well as possible. If hyperplasia is a proliferation of tissues, then hypoplasia is their decrease, atrophy, which in turn entails a decrease in the functionality of the organ.
How such an unusual disease arises and what can be done to stabilize the patient's condition, we'll talk about this article.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland is one of the rare diseases of this organ. Statistics state that the congenital malformation of the thyroid gland has no sexual preferences. Here everything depends on the pregnant woman, who must have a daughter or son.
As for the acquired pathology, in men it is extremely rare (1 in 4,000 men). Women suffer from hypoplasia much more often, beginning with adolescence (puberty). The push to develop the disease is sometimes pregnancy and menopause.
Causes of the hypoplasia of the thyroid gland
The thyroid gland is one of the many organs of the human body that every individual has. So why do some people have this body normal size, while others start to decrease in size or is considered disproportionately small since birth? Why does hypoplasia of the thyroid gland?
Like many other thyroid diseases, a decrease in its size may be due to iodine deficiency in the body. Iodine is a very important microelement, without which the whole process of metabolism is disrupted. In the human body, it should be from 20 to 50 mg. And most of this substance is contained in the thyroid gland and is involved in the synthesis of thyroid and thyroid-stimulating hormones. These hormones in turn are called to regulate metabolism, to promote the transformation of food into energy and the expenditure of this energy itself.
If iodine in the body is small, first of all the thyroid gland suffers, which can not produce enough hormones and atrophies, decreasing in size.
Oddly enough, the cause of thyroid tissue atrophy can be her hyperfunction (thyrotoxicosis), when specific hormones are produced in large quantities. The hyperfunction itself can cause hypoplasia of the thyroid gland can not, but long-term treatment of the aforementioned pathology with thyreostatic drugs may well cause dysfunction of the organ of the reverse plan. Those. Hormones will cease to be developed at all or their synthesis will be unproductive.
The work of the thyroid gland and the entire endocrine system is under the control of certain parts of the brain: the pituitary and hypothalamus. It is clear that failures in the work of these bodies will entail a disruption in the functioning of the endocrine system, and the thyroid gland in particular. In other words, pituitary diseases may well become one of the causes of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland.
To cause a pathological decrease (or increase) in the thyroid gland can be the diseases of the organ itself, associated with malfunctions in the immune system. For example, such an inflammatory disease as an autoimmune thyroiditis. Factors that cause inflammation and dystrophy of tissues are antibodies produced in the body to fight their own organ (thyroid gland).
Tumors on the thyroid gland can also reduce its functionality. As they grow, the size of the organ itself can gradually decrease. Negatively affect the size and functionality of the body can inflammatory processes in its tissues, violations of their blood supply and nutrition.
Violation of the thyroid gland with atrophy of the tissues of the organ also causes radiation radiation, which adversely affects the entire body. Long stay in the zone of high radiation or the passage of radiation therapy can negatively affect the health of the endocrine system. Pathology in adulthood can cause the treatment of hypothyroidism in childhood with the help of radioactive iodine.
The intake of oral contraceptives against the background of an insufficient level of hormone production by the thyroid gland can also lead to a decrease in the size of the organ.
And, finally, a change in the shape or size of an organ can be caused by age-related physiological changes. An unsatisfactory condition of the thyroid gland is often observed in elderly people.
If hypoplasia of the thyroid gland is diagnosed in childhood, the pathology most likely has an innate character. Typically, the characteristic symptoms of ill health are observed at the age of 2-3 months.
It is clear that the child's guilt in the appearance of the disease there. Factors that provoked a halt in the development of an important endocrine organ are the problems of a pregnant woman.
So cause hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in an unborn child:
toxicosis of a pregnant woman, especially developing in later terms,
deficiency of iodine in the body of a future mother,
pathology, reverse thyrotoxicosis, when there is a decrease in thyroid function in a pregnant woman, and consequently iron produces an inadequate amount of specific hormones (hypothyroidism),
uncontrolled intake of a pregnant woman with hormonal drugs,
various autoimmune diseases that develop during pregnancy,
the negative impact of radiation on the future mother and baby in her womb,
food and chemical intoxication during pregnancy,
infectious diseases that affect the body of a pregnant woman and cause malfunctions in the work of organs and systems, as well as the treatment of these pathologies with toxic antimicrobials.
The pathologically small size of the organ, its absence, the disproportionately small size of the left or right lobe of the thyroid gland can be the result of genetic mutations and various congenital malformations (for example, this deviation is observed in Down syndrome, congenital hypothyroidism and some other hereditary pathologies).
The thyroid gland is the most important organ of the human endocrine system. So, it is from her well-coordinated work that regulation of the activity of internal organs and systems of the human body largely depends. Endocrine glands through the development of specific hormones ensure the constancy of the organism as a complex system (homeostasis), despite the changing environmental conditions.
The joint work of the endocrine, nervous and immune system is aimed at regulating the following important functions: growth and development of the human body, sexual differentiation, reproductive function, metabolism, and the psychoemotional state of a person.
The thyroid gland, consisting of 2 equal parts, connected by the isthmus, producing iodothyronines and calcitonin, takes an active part in metabolism, body cell growth, regulates calcium and phosphate levels, prevents the formation of osteoclastic bone tissue destroyers and stimulates the appearance and activity of young bone cells osteoblasts.
For such an important organ to work well and without malfunction, it is necessary that it has normal dimensions, active cells and iodine access in sufficient quantities.
Various factors can influence the growth and development of the body. Some of them inhibit the development of the body in the prenatal period and the baby is born, initially having insufficient body size or its structural changes, affecting the functioning of the gland and the production of hormones.
With congenital abnormalities, the thyroid gland can be small in size and weight. These concepts are relative, because they depend on the age, sex and body weight of the patient, and yet there are tables that allow you to compare the available values of the volume and weight of the gland with the norm. So in a one-year-old child, the volume of the thyroid gland is in the range of 0.84 to 1.22 cm 3, and at 2 years it becomes 2-2.5 cm 3. Iron grows with the body, but the proportions must be preserved.
Changes in the size of the thyroid gland entail changes in its weight and impairment of functionality.
Changes in size with congenital hypoplasia can be seen not on the entire gland, but on one of the lobes. Normally their dimensions should be the same. With hypoplasia, you can see a decrease in the size of not just the whole organ, but one of its halves.
There are cases when a newborn child due to genetic mutations does not have a thyroid gland at all. If the pathology develops in adolescence or adulthood and has acquired character, the thyroid gland can be greatly reduced in size, but it can not disappear at all. The absence of an organ is characteristic only of congenital pathology.
Symptoms of the hypoplasia of the thyroid gland
To understand that the thyroid gland has insufficient size and functionality, it is not necessary to constantly measure it or probe it. The fact that the endocrine organ is not all right to the doctor will tell the first signs of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland.
To such signs it is possible to carry:
increased nervousness and irritability,
causeless weakness without the absence of large physical or mental loads,
All these signs can be united by one name - astheno-neurotic syndrome. Of course, the appearance of such nonspecific symptoms is not necessarily associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Nevertheless, it is necessary to examine the organ with such symptoms and the absence of other pathologies with similar manifestations.
More indicative symptoms of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland are considered to be:
strong weakness, apathy, disturbances of the emotional-volitional sphere,
weight change in the direction of increase, while the appetite has not undergone strong changes or is absent at all,
deterioration of hair and nails (hair becomes prone to brittleness and loss, split, nails begin to separate, become unusually brittle),
changes in appearance and skin condition (skin becomes dry and pale),
edematous syndrome, manifested by the accumulation of fluid in the subcutaneous fat,
the scarcity of emotional mimic manifestations due to the swelling of the eyelids and the face,
smoothing out the contours of the face, facial features become less expressive,
unreasonable bloating, not associated with gastrointestinal pathologies,
tremor of limbs and muscles,
problems with bowel movement,
episodes of loss of consciousness,
decrease in overall body temperature,
deterioration of both long-term and operational memory,
the weakening of sexual desire (libido) in persons of both sexes,
increase in the volume of menstrual discharge in girls and women.
All of the above signs, except the last, can be attributed to the general symptoms characteristic of adults of different sex and age. However, the symptoms of the disease in men, women and children may be somewhat different. In addition, manifestations of congenital pathology diagnosed in the early age period will differ from the acquired disease, typical for adolescence and adulthood.
Characteristics of the disease depending on the sex and age of the patient
It should be noted immediately that the insufficient size of the internal organ itself is unlikely to give any symptomatology. Symptoms that we observe are associated with a dysfunction of the thyroid gland, an inadequate production of hormones that regulate metabolism and control the work of various body systems. Those. Symptoms of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland completely coincide with manifestations of hypothyroidism.
It is clear that at each age the disease will manifest itself differently, because the human body until a certain point is constantly evolving and acquires all the new qualities.
Although "thyroid" is considered fully formed and working, starting from the 13th week of pregnancy, it is very difficult to diagnose the disease in utero. In his work, the baby's endocrine organ uses iodine, which enters the mother's body. It is its number and affects the efficiency of the thyroid gland of the fetus.
Congenital pathology doctors diagnosed usually after a couple of months after the birth of the baby. This is due to the fact that in the first days of life hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in a child can occur without any significant symptoms. Especially if it is a mild form of pathology or partial dysplasia (dysplasia of one lobe of the organ).
In severe cases, in the absence or significant underdevelopment of the thyroid gland, the effects of hormone deficiency are already immediately after the birth of the child. The following symptoms are considered to be alarming:
a large body weight of the newborn (more than 4 kg) with average height and weight of the mother,
later the departure of the original feces,
edematous cheeks, lips and eyelids of the baby, a wide tongue with a reduced tonus,
a low rough timbre of voice that can be detected when the baby cries,
a long process of scarring of the umbilical wound,
jaundice of newborns if it lasts more than 4 weeks.
The next set of symptoms indicates not just the lack of hormones, but also the development of dementia (cretinism) against the background of hypothyroidism:
a puffy face and a swollen abdomen,
disproportionately short arms and legs with wide feet,
eyes dull, nose bridge slightly sinks,
the tongue is wide, does not fit in the mouth, therefore the mouth is always slightly ajar,
the hair growth line is understated (low forehead),
weakness of reflexes,
underdevelopment of sexual characteristics,
inability to learn.
The need for hormones in a baby grows as it develops. The underdeveloped thyroid gland can not cope with the tasks assigned to it. Deficiency of hormones to 2-3 months of age gives symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism:
a poor appetite in a baby, giving up breast, and the associated weight loss of a child,
frequent constipation with normal nutrition,
Low activity, manifested in the form of lethargy and drowsiness,
insufficient reaction to bright light and other stimuli,
constantly cold hands and feet,
frequent muted crying,
later and prolonged teething.
The child grows, and hypoplasia of the thyroid gland begins to give more expressed symptomatology, indicating a lag in physical and mental development. By 1 year of life, there is already insufficient growth and weight of the child. The kid begins talking, sitting, crawling, walking much later than peers. He has difficulties with perception and memory, the fulfillment of certain tasks, and there are noticeable problems with training.
The causes of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in a teenager can be both hereditary and external factors. This can be both the underdevelopment of the body, which was not noticed in childhood, and the insufficient intake of iodine into the body, radiation exposure.
There is a disease in the form of drowsiness and lethargy, edematous syndrome, low body temperature, low heart rate and blood pressure, poor appetite, constipation.
Such adolescents have poor academic performance due to the decrease in attention and memory, as well as the inability to focus on the learning process.
Thyroid hormones regulate and puberty, which begins in adolescence. So, children with a deficiency of these hormones may have a later onset of puberty, a lack of interest in the opposite sex, and girls have late and lean menstruation.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in adults
If in childhood it is necessary to talk about the underdevelopment of the thyroid gland, then in adults we are dealing with the atrophy of the endocrine organ, and as a consequence, by limiting its working capacity. However, women are more prone to environmental changes and the negative impact of stress factors, so a disease like hypoplasia of the thyroid glands affects them much more often.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in women is primarily a blow to its reproductive function. The pathology can start its development both during puberty and at a later age.
Usually the disease has a slow development and mild symptoms. It can manifest itself in the form of anemia, depressions, constant fatigue, characteristic of many diseases.
In principle, a woman may not be aware of the presence of the disease. After all, anemia is often the result of a lack of vitamins and trace elements in the diet, depression is the result of failures, tragic events and other stressful situations, and chronic fatigue is often associated with inability to dispose of their time and relax, placing a lot of duties on the shoulders of the woman, heavy physical or mental labor, lack of proper rest. For this reason, women are not in a hurry to seek help, and the disease is aggravated.
Symptoms such as weight gain, memory impairment, frequent constipation, early aging of the skin, deterioration of the hair and nails of women are also associated with anything, but not with the work of the thyroid gland. Begin to treat
At some point a young woman will want to have a baby. This is where the difficulties begin. Many women either can not become pregnant at all, or lose a child in the early stages of pregnancy due to miscarriage. And the cause of everything is the inadequacy of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), accompanied by a decrease in the size of the body.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland and pregnancy
To say that pregnancy often becomes the cause of hypoplasia of "thyroid" would be wrong. Usually during this period, on the contrary, there is some increase in the body, which is the norm and indicates its health.
Nevertheless, if the diet of a pregnant woman does not have enough iodine, then with the development of the fetus and the formation of his thyroid gland, the situation will be aggravated. In fact the child will take away a part of an iodine to itself. Against the backdrop of a deficiency of an important trace element, which is a constituent of the hormones "thyroid", just the hypoplasia of the organ can develop, which negatively affects the woman's condition, both on the development of the fetus and on the course of pregnancy.
Pregnancy against the background of the development of this pathology is taken under the control of doctors as a condition with a high risk of complications such as miscarriages, fetal fading, severe toxicosis in later periods (gestosis).
Complications can occur at any time of pregnancy. Even if the child is born on time, there is no guarantee that a healthy and happy life awaits him later. Hypoplasia and hypothyroidism in the mother are the main risk factors for the development of such a pathology in the child. Therefore, it is so important to monitor the functionality of the thyroid gland both on the eve of conception and during the entire pregnancy.
It is not superfluous to check the "thyroid" after delivery, because the organ of the mother who divides the child's iodine with the thyroid gland can fail at any moment. If this happens before the birth, the symptoms of the disease may not be, and the child will not suffer, but the mother is after the birth of the baby to take care of the thyroid gland. Especially if she plans to give birth again.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland with menopause
At some point, more often after 40-45 years, the woman undergoes cardinal changes that necessarily affect her health. The period of menopause (climax) and the hormonal changes that occur in it can not but affect the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Oscillations of the hormonal background make it difficult to work an important endocrine organ that also controls the production of sex hormones. The hormonal imbalance causes the thyroid gland to work with redoubled force, which can lead to the development of thyrotoxicosis. However, if there is an iodine deficiency in the body, the thyroid gland will not cope with its duties, which, in the end, will lead to hypothyroidism and organ atrophy.
Disorders of hormone production lead to emotional instability, which is often observed in menopause. Stress and nervous breakdowns only pour oil on the fire, further complicating the work of the thyroid gland. Not to mention diets that limit the intake of essential nutrients in the body. And after all, women of middle age who suffer from a decrease in physical activity want to remain as slim and attractive as they were in their youth.
Oscillations of the hormonal background and disruption of the thyroid work on their background lead to rapid fatigue, weight gain, impairment of mental functions and metabolic processes in the tissues of the body. Outwardly this is manifested in irritability, forgetfulness, fullness, deterioration of the appearance and condition of the skin, hair, teeth, nails, increasing brittle bones, etc.
If such symptoms appear, you should immediately contact the endocrinologist to check the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in men
As already mentioned, men suffer from a decrease in the size and disruption of the thyroid gland, much less often than women. According to statistics, the disease affects women almost 10 times more often.
Male organism is less susceptible to fluctuations of the hormonal background, which are observed mainly only during puberty. Therefore, the causes of the development of pathology are mainly: iodine deficiency, radioactive radiation, age changes.
Manifestations of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in men are practically the same as in the female. This increased fatigue and decreased performance against its background, early baldness, memory problems, decreased sexual desire, deterioration of the skin and nails, completeness.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland develops gradually, therefore the observed symptomatology can vary depending on the stage of the disease.
There are 3 stages of pathology, which are characterized by their manifestations:
The 1st stage of the disease is its beginning. Hypoplasia of thyroid gland 1 degree manifests itself in the form of a decrease in sexual desire, a reduction in the volume of menstrual flow, weakness and apathy, loss of appetite, weight gain, worsening of short-term memory. At this stage, the thyroid gland can be of normal size or even be slightly enlarged.
2 stage - the height of the pathology with notable manifestations of hypothyroidism. Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland of the 2nd degree is characterized by the severity of symptoms and the appearance of a new symptomatology: loss of consciousness, irritability and weakness in response to mental stress, forgetfulness, inattention, decreased body temperature, unreasonable chills, decreased intestinal peristalsis, manifested as constipation, etc.
Stage 3 of the disease - this is already a serious violation of mental activity and the development of complications. In childhood, cretinism develops, in the adult - myxedema. For the latter are characteristic: edematic syndrome, accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity, which is fraught with the development of heart failure, bags under the eyes, pale skin.
It is advisable to start treatment at the first stage of the disease, when the symptomatology of the pathology is smoothed and not expressed. However, most patients do not pay much attention to small and non-dangerous symptoms of the disease, seeking help even when the disease significantly worsens their quality of life or negatively affects the sexual and reproductive health.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland is a kind of collective name for the disease, because it can manifest itself in different ways. Acquired pathology is most often manifested by a uniform decrease in both parts of the organ. Such a pathology is called diffuse.
Diffuse hypoplasia of the thyroid gland can be congenital. "Shchitovidka" in the body of the embryo begins to develop after 3-4 weeks from the conception of the baby and is formed for another 10 weeks. An organ failure can occur at any time before the 13th week of pregnancy. If the baby's thyroid gland begins to experience iodine deficiency in a later period, when it has already formed and began to produce hormones, its dysfunction occurs. The baby in the womb continues to grow, but the thyroid gland does not.
Congenital hypoplasia of the thyroid gland can be diffuse and partial. Before the 8th week of pregnancy, the left and right lobe of the organ are laid. If during this period the fetus will feel the influence of factors provoking dysfunction of the thyroid gland, there is a big risk of development of pathology of one of the parts of the organ.
The diagnosis of "hypoplasia of the right lobe of the thyroid gland" is put when the right side of the organ remains smaller than the left. Accordingly, hypoplasia of the left lobe of the thyroid gland is an underdevelopment of the left part of the organ.
Depending on the size of the body and the degree of disruption of its functions, mild and severe hypoplasia of the thyroid gland is isolated. The diagnosis of "moderate hypoplasia of the thyroid gland" is set when the size of the organ is within the lower limit of the norm, and there are minor violations of its functionality, or one of the organ parts is reduced. In this case, the symptoms of the disease may be absent altogether or manifest in mild form in the form of increased fatigue. With the congenital pathology of one of the children, children are characterized by limited activity and low cognitive abilities, they have a slight delay in physical and mental development.
Complications and consequences
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland, in spite of all the unattractiveness of its symptoms, is by no means a verdict. Timely treatment of the disease, while it has not yet caused dangerous violations of the work of other organs and systems, is able to correct the situation. If everything is left as it is, the disease threatens not only to worsen the patient's quality of life, but also lead to disastrous consequences in connection with the development of other pathologies.
Complications of the disease in children can lead to mental retardation and dementia. What will be the future of the child, depends only on the parents who should monitor the development of the baby and seek help from doctors with any suspicious symptoms. Many symptoms can be eliminated and during late treatment, but not the defects of physical and mental development.
In adolescence and adulthood hypoplasia "thyroid" can cause such pathologies as obesity, diabetes insipidus, osteoporosis, lead to the development of many diseases of the digestive, nervous and cardiovascular system. A metabolic disorder will lead to hair loss, deterioration of the skin, nails, teeth, increased fatigue and problems with memory will contribute to reduced efficiency and productivity. In men, hypoplasia of the thyroid gland often causes a decrease in sexual activity, and in women - infertility and miscarriages at different periods of pregnancy.
Diagnostics of the hypoplasia of the thyroid gland
The problematic diagnosis of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland at an early stage is that the disease during this period can be asymptomatic. This speaks in favor of regular preventive examinations of the endocrinologist with palpation and, if necessary, taking an analysis of hormones, which, alas, are not popular among adolescents and adults.
Inspection of the endocrinologist with the necessary research is especially needed for women who dream of offspring. To pass such research it is necessary still on the eve of conception. During pregnancy, prenatal screening is carried out to determine the pathologies of fetal development, including a blood test for hormones and ultrasound of the fetus with measurements of various values.
The analysis of blood on hormones necessarily take and at newborns on 4-5 day after sorts. It is this study that allows us to identify the disease at an early stage and begin timely treatment.
To judge the violation of the functions of the thyroid gland is possible by the level of hormones of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Hypoplasia of the body always causes an increase in the level of TSH, which indicates an initial hypothyroidism. The severity of the condition is indicated by the level of hormones T3 and T4.
Elevated levels of thyroglobulin (TG) and antibodies to it indicate the causes of pathology. With congenital pathology, these indicators remain normal.
Blood tests for hormones when visiting an endocrinologist are an obligatory diagnostic procedure for changing the size of the thyroid gland associated with impaired development of a specific secret. A general analysis of urine, blood and stool will help to identify concomitant pathologies that may give a certain symptomatology (for example, constipation can be a consequence of many pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, and low blood pressure - heart and vascular diseases).
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland is primarily a decrease in the size of the body. At palpation, the doctor can determine a significant decrease in the organ in volume, which is impossible at an early stage of the pathology. And here instrumental diagnostics comes to the rescue.
The main method of instrumental diagnosis in this case is ultrasound of the thyroid gland, during which the organ hypoplasia is revealed with the slightest changes in size or shape. Ultrasound examination makes it possible to accurately determine the size of the organ and its individual parts, to detect their decrease and tumor processes on the organ. Finding echopriznaki hypoplasia of the thyroid gland, the doctor can confidently diagnose the disease and begin research on the definition of the stage of pathology.
A biopsy specimen examination with a puncture biopsy allows to determine the condition of the glandular tissue and to detect the tumor processes in it.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with pathologies that can cause symptoms similar to those of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland.
It is worth mentioning immediately that not all patients with thyroid hypoplasia require active treatment. Everything depends on the degree of disruption of the functioning of the organ, more precisely on the degree of development of hypothyroidism.
For example, with a congenital pathology of one of the lobes of the organ or a slight decrease in its size, the hormonal background may remain normal. In this case, the patient should carefully monitor his condition, receive iodine in sufficient quantities with food and regularly undergo examinations with the endocrinologist.
If a newborn has hormonal deficiency or symptoms that indicate hypoplasia of the thyroid, this is a signal for action, because already by the age of 3-4 years a child without de facto treatment may develop dementia. With congenital insufficiency of the endocrine gland, hormone administration is prescribed for life
In adulthood, treatment is prescribed only after establishing the cause of the pathology. In this case, to prevent further loss of glandular tissue, the main disease is treated and the administration of iodine preparations as well as vitamins providing the affected organ with nutrients is prescribed in parallel.
When hypothyroidism is detected, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed, the most popular of which is the drug "levothyroxine sodium" Eutirox.
"Eutiroks" is a synthetic analogue of thyroid hormones. It reveals all the same properties as the hormones of animals, so they can successfully replace them with deficiency of "thyroid gland".
The dosage of the drug depends on the individual needs of the body in the hormones of the thyroid gland. Tablets are available in a dosage of 25 to 150 mg, which makes it possible to administer the drug "Eutiroks" with hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in the amount of 1 tablet with a certain dosage daily.
Begin treatment with minimal doses, gradually increasing the dosage to the optimum. Take pills in the morning on an empty stomach, washing them with water. Half an hour later you can have breakfast.
The drug is not prescribed for hypersensitivity to it, adrenal and hypophyseal insufficiency, thyrotoxicosis, acute heart pathologies (myocardial infarction, myocarditis, pancarditis, etc.).
Side effects of the drug can be observed with hypersensitivity to it and exceeding the dose of the drug. Most often observed arrhythmias, tachycardia, hot flashes, hyperhidrosis, nausea and diarrhea, headaches, insomnia, hyperthermia, allergic reactions. Women sometimes have menstrual irregularities.
When hyperplasia of the thyroid gland can be appointed as synthetic ("L-thyroxine", "Novotiral", "Thyreotom"), and natural preparations based on the hormones of cattle ("thyroidin", "thyroxine") drugs. The drawback of the latter is the difficulty in dosing.
To treat hypoplasia of the thyroid gland and the lack of its functions, the same methods of physiotherapy as for hypothyroidism are applicable. This is primarily a bath with iodine, hirudotherapy, CMV-therapy. Improve the metabolism will help air, oxygen, ozone baths and, of course, sea therapy (sea water and air have a heal-improving effect in hypothyroidism).
Improve the work of the endocrine and nervous system will help low-frequency transcebral therapy, UHF therapy, TCEA, carbon dioxide and radon baths.
Surgical treatment for hypothyroidism "thyroid" is not assigned, because the condition can easily be adjusted by more gentle methods.
Alternative treatment and homeopathy
Treatment with alternative agents is based on the body getting enough iodine to normalize the thyroid gland. Nutrition for hypoplasia of the thyroid gland should be complete with the addition of products that contain a large amount of iodine.
The best sources of iodine are seafood, especially sea kale (laminaria), and cucumbers. Laminaria can be eaten as a canned product, or in powder, adding it to various dishes. Cucumbers can be eaten not more than 1 kg per day, this will help maintain a balance of easily digested iodine in the body in the summer.
Recipes of alternative medicine for hypothyroidism are reduced to treatment with herbs. The reception of broths and infusions of such plants as xanthium, chokeberry (fruits), walnut (young leaves and leaves), alder (bark), pine (kidneys) is shown. In broths you can add juniper (fruit), celandine, anise, chamomile, motherwort, flax seeds, cranberries and other medicinal plants.
You can also take a lily of the valley tincture of alcohol. Begin the reception with 5 drops, gradually increasing the dosage to 15-30 drops. Then they count down.
Spirituous tincture of iodine is not taken in pure form, but with apple cider vinegar (1-2 drops of iodine per 1 tsp of vinegar), diluting with water.
In homeopathy for the treatment of hypothyroidism and hypoplasia of the thyroid gland, homeopathic grains "L-thyroxine", which are cheaper than synthetic drugs, are used. Its reception does not cause weight gain, and the dosage gradually decreases.
Prevention of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland consists of a healthy and active lifestyle, annual visits to the endocrinologist, the use of foods rich in iodine, increased immunity, and the care of one's health and the health of offspring.
The prognosis of the disease with a timely commencement of replacement and iodoterapii favorable. Such treatment helps not only to stabilize the hormonal background, but in some cases also to restore glandular tissue. However, most often this treatment has to take place throughout life, but it gives a guarantee of full development and a happy, healthy life.
Without treatment, the disease will lead to a disruption of mental and physical development, especially in children. And these pathologies are no longer amenable to correction by hormones or other types of drugs.
For adolescents, this question is important: will hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism become an obstacle to military service? Here everything depends on the degree of severity of the pathology, the possibility of its treatment and the presence of irreversible complications in the form of mental and physical insufficiency. In any case, it will be necessary to pass an examination taking into account the results of the medical commission.
Last update: 25.06.2018
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Diffusive changes in the thyroid gland are changes in the tissues of the entire thyroid gland, which is revealed in the course of ultrasound (ultrasound). With certain transformations in iron with the help of ultrasonic diagnostics, a change in the ability of the thyroid tissue to reflect sound is noted (called echogenicity).
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