To understand that the thyroid gland has insufficient size and functionality, it is not necessary to constantly measure it or probe it. The fact that the endocrine organ is not all right to the doctor will tell the first signs of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland.
To such signs it is possible to carry:
- increased nervousness and irritability,
- causeless weakness without the absence of large physical or mental loads,
- fast fatigue,
- memory impairment.
All these signs can be united by one name - astheno-neurotic syndrome. Of course, the appearance of such nonspecific symptoms is not necessarily associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Nevertheless, it is necessary to examine the organ with such symptoms and the absence of other pathologies with similar manifestations.
More indicative symptoms of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland are considered to be:
- strong weakness, apathy, disturbances of the emotional-volitional sphere,
- weight change in the direction of increase, while the appetite has not undergone strong changes or is absent at all,
- deterioration of hair and nails (hair becomes prone to brittleness and loss, split, nails begin to separate, become unusually brittle),
- changes in appearance and skin condition (skin becomes dry and pale),
- edematous syndrome, manifested by the accumulation of fluid in the subcutaneous fat,
- the scarcity of emotional mimic manifestations due to the swelling of the eyelids and the face,
- smoothing out the contours of the face, facial features become less expressive,
- unreasonable bloating, not associated with gastrointestinal pathologies,
- tremor of limbs and muscles,
- problems with bowel movement,
- episodes of loss of consciousness,
- decrease in overall body temperature,
- deterioration of both long-term and operational memory,
- the weakening of sexual desire (libido) in persons of both sexes,
- increase in the volume of menstrual discharge in girls and women.
All of the above signs, except the last, can be attributed to the general symptoms characteristic of adults of different sex and age. However, the symptoms of the disease in men, women and children may be somewhat different. In addition, manifestations of congenital pathology diagnosed in the early age period will differ from the acquired disease, typical for adolescence and adulthood.
Characteristics of the disease depending on the sex and age of the patient
It should be noted immediately that the insufficient size of the internal organ itself is unlikely to give any symptomatology. Symptoms that we observe are associated with a dysfunction of the thyroid gland, an inadequate production of hormones that regulate metabolism and control the work of various body systems. Those. Symptoms of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland completely coincide with manifestations of hypothyroidism.
It is clear that at each age the disease will manifest itself differently, because the human body until a certain point is constantly evolving and acquires all the new qualities.
Although "thyroid" is considered fully formed and working, starting from the 13th week of pregnancy, it is very difficult to diagnose the disease in utero. In his work, the baby's endocrine organ uses iodine, which enters the mother's body. It is its number and affects the efficiency of the thyroid gland of the fetus.
Congenital pathology doctors diagnosed usually after a couple of months after the birth of the baby. This is due to the fact that in the first days of life hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in a child can occur without any significant symptoms. Especially if it is a mild form of pathology or partial dysplasia (dysplasia of one lobe of the organ).
In severe cases, in the absence or significant underdevelopment of the thyroid gland, the effects of hormone deficiency are already immediately after the birth of the child. The following symptoms are considered to be alarming:
- a large body weight of the newborn (more than 4 kg) with average height and weight of the mother,
- later the departure of the original feces,
- edematous cheeks, lips and eyelids of the baby, a wide tongue with a reduced tonus,
- a low rough timbre of voice that can be detected when the baby cries,
- a long process of scarring of the umbilical wound,
- jaundice of newborns if it lasts more than 4 weeks.
The next set of symptoms indicates not just the lack of hormones, but also the development of dementia (cretinism) against the background of hypothyroidism:
- a puffy face and a swollen abdomen,
- disproportionately short arms and legs with wide feet,
- eyes dull, nose bridge slightly sinks,
- the tongue is wide, does not fit in the mouth, therefore the mouth is always slightly ajar,
- the hair growth line is understated (low forehead),
- weakness of reflexes,
- underdevelopment of sexual characteristics,
- inability to learn.
The need for hormones in a baby grows as it develops. The underdeveloped thyroid gland can not cope with the tasks assigned to it. Deficiency of hormones to 2-3 months of age gives symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism:
- a poor appetite in a baby, giving up breast, and the associated weight loss of a child,
- frequent constipation with normal nutrition,
- Low activity, manifested in the form of lethargy and drowsiness,
- insufficient reaction to bright light and other stimuli,
- constantly cold hands and feet,
- frequent muted crying,
- later and prolonged teething.
The child grows, and hypoplasia of the thyroid gland begins to give more expressed symptomatology, indicating a lag in physical and mental development. By 1 year of life, there is already insufficient growth and weight of the child. The kid begins talking, sitting, crawling, walking much later than peers. He has difficulties with perception and memory, the fulfillment of certain tasks, and there are noticeable problems with training.
The causes of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in a teenager can be both hereditary and external factors. This can be both the underdevelopment of the body, which was not noticed in childhood, and the insufficient intake of iodine into the body, radiation exposure.
There is a disease in the form of drowsiness and lethargy, edematous syndrome, low body temperature, low heart rate and blood pressure, poor appetite, constipation.
Such adolescents have poor academic performance due to the decrease in attention and memory, as well as the inability to focus on the learning process.
Thyroid hormones regulate and puberty, which begins in adolescence. So, children with a deficiency of these hormones may have a later onset of puberty, a lack of interest in the opposite sex, and girls have late and lean menstruation.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in adults
If in childhood it is necessary to talk about the underdevelopment of the thyroid gland, then in adults we are dealing with the atrophy of the endocrine organ, and as a consequence, by limiting its working capacity. However, women are more prone to environmental changes and the negative impact of stress factors, so a disease like hypoplasia of the thyroid glands affects them much more often.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in women is primarily a blow to its reproductive function. The pathology can start its development both during puberty and at a later age.
Usually the disease has a slow development and mild symptoms. It can manifest itself in the form of anemia, depressions, constant fatigue, characteristic of many diseases.
In principle, a woman may not be aware of the presence of the disease. After all, anemia is often the result of a lack of vitamins and trace elements in the diet, depression is the result of failures, tragic events and other stressful situations, and chronic fatigue is often associated with inability to dispose of their time and relax, placing a lot of duties on the shoulders of the woman, heavy physical or mental labor, lack of proper rest. For this reason, women are not in a hurry to seek help, and the disease is aggravated.
Symptoms such as weight gain, memory impairment, frequent constipation, early aging of the skin, deterioration of the hair and nails of women are also associated with anything, but not with the work of the thyroid gland. Begin to treat
At some point a young woman will want to have a baby. This is where the difficulties begin. Many women either can not become pregnant at all, or lose a child in the early stages of pregnancy due to miscarriage. And the cause of everything is the inadequacy of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), accompanied by a decrease in the size of the body.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland and pregnancy
To say that pregnancy often becomes the cause of hypoplasia of "thyroid" would be wrong. Usually during this period, on the contrary, there is some increase in the body, which is the norm and indicates its health.
Nevertheless, if the diet of a pregnant woman does not have enough iodine, then with the development of the fetus and the formation of his thyroid gland, the situation will be aggravated. In fact the child will take away a part of an iodine to itself. Against the backdrop of a deficiency of an important trace element, which is a constituent of the hormones "thyroid", just the hypoplasia of the organ can develop, which negatively affects the woman's condition, both on the development of the fetus and on the course of pregnancy.
Pregnancy against the background of the development of this pathology is taken under the control of doctors as a condition with a high risk of complications such as miscarriages, fetal fading, severe toxicosis in later periods (gestosis).
Complications can occur at any time of pregnancy. Even if the child is born on time, there is no guarantee that a healthy and happy life awaits him later. Hypoplasia and hypothyroidism in the mother are the main risk factors for the development of such a pathology in the child. Therefore, it is so important to monitor the functionality of the thyroid gland both on the eve of conception and during the entire pregnancy.
It is not superfluous to check the "thyroid" after delivery, because the organ of the mother who divides the child's iodine with the thyroid gland can fail at any moment. If this happens before the birth, the symptoms of the disease may not be, and the child will not suffer, but the mother is after the birth of the baby to take care of the thyroid gland. Especially if she plans to give birth again.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland with menopause
At some point, more often after 40-45 years, the woman undergoes cardinal changes that necessarily affect her health. The period of menopause (climax) and the hormonal changes that occur in it can not but affect the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Oscillations of the hormonal background make it difficult to work an important endocrine organ that also controls the production of sex hormones. The hormonal imbalance causes the thyroid gland to work with redoubled force, which can lead to the development of thyrotoxicosis. However, if there is an iodine deficiency in the body, the thyroid gland will not cope with its duties, which, in the end, will lead to hypothyroidism and organ atrophy.
Disorders of hormone production lead to emotional instability, which is often observed in menopause. Stress and nervous breakdowns only pour oil on the fire, further complicating the work of the thyroid gland. Not to mention diets that limit the intake of essential nutrients in the body. And after all, women of middle age who suffer from a decrease in physical activity want to remain as slim and attractive as they were in their youth.
Oscillations of the hormonal background and disruption of the thyroid work on their background lead to rapid fatigue, weight gain, impairment of mental functions and metabolic processes in the tissues of the body. Outwardly this is manifested in irritability, forgetfulness, fullness, deterioration of the appearance and condition of the skin, hair, teeth, nails, increasing brittle bones, etc.
If such symptoms appear, you should immediately contact the endocrinologist to check the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in men
As already mentioned, men suffer from a decrease in the size and disruption of the thyroid gland, much less often than women. According to statistics, the disease affects women almost 10 times more often.
Male organism is less susceptible to fluctuations of the hormonal background, which are observed mainly only during puberty. Therefore, the causes of the development of pathology are mainly: iodine deficiency, radioactive radiation, age changes.
Manifestations of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in men are practically the same as in the female. This increased fatigue and decreased performance against its background, early baldness, memory problems, decreased sexual desire, deterioration of the skin and nails, completeness.