HIV infection: detection of human immunodeficiency virus (PCR vich)

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 19.11.2021

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HIV in the material is normally absent.

The PCR method for detecting HIV RNA can be qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus RNA using PCR is used in the following cases:

  • neonatal screening;
  • confirmation of the results of a screening serological test;
  • screening of patients at high risk of infection;
  • resolution of doubtful results on immunoblotting research;
  • monitoring the effectiveness of antiviral treatment;
  • the definition of the stage of the disease (the transition of infection in the disease).

Direct quantitative determination of HIV RNA by PCR allows more accurate prediction of the rate of disease development in people infected with HIV, more accurately than the CD4 + cell count , and therefore more accurately assess their survival. The high content of virus particles usually correlates with a pronounced impairment of the immune status and a low content of CD4 + cells. A low content of virus particles usually correlates with a more favorable immune status and a higher content of CD4 + cells. The content of viral RNA in the blood allows predicting the transition of the disease to the clinical stage. The likelihood of developing AIDS is 10.8 times higher in people with HIV-1 levels in the blood of more than 10,000 copies / ml than in people with HIV-1 in the blood below 10,000 copies / ml. With HIV infection, the prognosis directly depends on the level of viremia. Reducing the level of viremia in treatment improves the prognosis of the disease.

The group of experts of the United States developed indications for the therapy of patients with HIV. Treatment is indicated for patients with CD4 + cell counts in the blood of less than 300 in 1 μl or serum HIV RNA levels above 20,000 copies / ml (PCR). Evaluation of the results of antiretroviral therapy of people infected with HIV is carried out to reduce the content of HIV serum HIV RNA. With effective treatment, the level of viremia should decrease 10 times during the first 8 weeks and be below the sensitivity limit of PCR (less than 500 copies / ml) 4-6 months after the start of therapy.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]

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