Based on the patient's complaints, anamnesis and clinical manifestations, an X-ray examination of the skull bones in one or more projections may be prescribed. Sometimes a targeted study of a specific area of the head is prescribed.
In case of injuries, congenital abnormalities, complaints of the patient about headache, dizziness, lack of coordination, an overview X-ray of the skull is performed. In this case, fractures and cracks in the bones, displacement of bone fragments are found; developmental anomalies; curvature of the nasal septum and diseases of the paranasal sinuses.
In addition, on the roentgenogram, one can suspect the presence of osteomyelitis of the bones of the skull by the presence of foci of calcification (white areas, impervious to rays), osteoporosis - by areas of bone rarefaction. Intracranial foci of calcification are interpreted as signs of chronic subdural hemorrhage; about the same, only with a more distinct rounded shape, oligodendromas and meningiomas (tumor calcification) look. 
On the X-ray, you can also see the vascular changes characteristic of high intracranial pressure; disorders specific to metabolic disorders with excessive secretion of growth hormone (acromegaly) and softening of bones in Paget's disease. It is not always possible to draw a final conclusion about the disease from the radiograph alone, but it can indicate the direction of the subsequent diagnostic search.
Quite often, people are prescribed a targeted X-ray of the sella turcica to detect prolactinoma, clarify the presence of osteoporosis and better consider the features of the vascular pattern if intracranial hypertension is suspected.
A popular study using an X-ray of the temporomandibular joints, which shows arthritis or arthrosis of the joint of the same name, a violation of its functions. Such a picture is taken in two positions: in one the patient's mouth is open, in the other it is closed.
With purulent mastoiditis, an X-ray of the temporal bone is prescribed, a targeted X-ray of the zygomatic bone can determine the cause of pain when chewing and other movements of the jaws.
With craniocerebral traumatic lesions, fractures in the orbit area are often found. With this study, you can also detect the presence of a foreign body in the eye. 
Sighting through the bones of the nose, which often suffers from facial injuries, as the most prominent part of it. A popular prescription is mandibular x-ray. Basically, they are prescribed for suspected fractures, however, in this way, tumors and some inflammatory diseases can be detected.