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Health

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Blisters after a burn: how to heal and how to handle

 

Many at least once in their life have faced the problem of skin burn. Most often this happens in everyday life in the kitchen after contact with a hot stove, oven, steam boiling liquid, with a hot iron during ironing. If as a result of this there was only reddening, then the burn is not strong, 1st degree and it will take 2-3 days. If blisters are formed, then this indicates a more serious skin lesion - a second degree burn, which can be dragged on for 10-12 days in small areas of the lesion, otherwise requires treatment.

Causes of the blister after burn

The cause of the formation of a blister after a burn is the defeat of the cornified epithelium to the growth layer, as a result of which its detachment occurs. Generalized it is possible so to classify the influences leading to occurrence of blisters:

  • thermal (high temperature);
  • chemical (acids, chemicals, alkalis);
  • electric (electric current);
  • beam (the sun).

Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of burns consists in pathological changes in skin tissue corresponding to second degree burns with reddening of the affected areas and the appearance of small vesicles. They have the character of a local process, their healing depends on the time since the injury, the presence of secondary infection, etc.

When the blisters are opened, a red erosive surface without skin is exposed. As a rule, such burns take place within 1-2 weeks, leaving no scarring. Healing occurs under the scab, i.e. First exudates fluid (exudation), then the skin tissue is regenerated, forming a coarser structure - a scab that gradually descends, the phase of epithelialization begins. When blisters are infected, instead of the first phase, purulent-necrotic appears, the elimination of which is a long process.

After purification from infection, a granulation stage occurs - the formation of young cells. At this phase, care must be taken to avoid re-infection and not return to the purulent-necrotic stage. If everything went well, the granulation tissue will be replaced by the epithelium. When infection of burn wounds a scar is formed.

Symptoms of the blister after burn

Symptoms of the blister after the burn are redness of the skin due to blood flow to the affected area (hyperemia), swelling, baking pain at the site of lesion localization, and in a few hours - the appearance of blisters filled with a yellowish transparent serous fluid.

Blister after child burn

Burns in children are quite common. In everyday life it is difficult to keep track of the squabbling. For them, the proximity of heating appliances, irons included, hot dishes left in careless access, electric sockets without plugs, long exposure to the sun is very dangerous. If contact with the thermal source has ended with only redness is a favorable outcome, but if there are blisters, emergency measures must be taken.

With the same degree of burns, lesions in children are much greater than in adults, and they are treated more difficultly. Even with minor injuries, a burn shock may occur. In the case of large damages, a child's life threatens. Therefore, immediately it is necessary to consult a doctor, providing first aid at home. Such measures include the removal of contact with the source that caused the burn, the removal of clothing around the lesion, cooling it with cold running water, possibly anesthesia.

Complications and consequences

Burns of the 2nd degree, which is characterized by the appearance of blisters, are of a superficial nature, so they often do not leave scarring. Unpleasant consequences and complications with burns are associated with infection in the wound. To penetrate bacteria can through the bursting blister or through the sebaceous and sweat glands. Having received burns, a person loses immunity, microbes multiply rapidly, an inflammatory, purulent process flares up. At the same time, the area of redness increases, puffiness appears, and the temperature may rise. Without the help of a doctor, it can not do, healing can slow down to six months.

A severe complication is the development of burn disease. It can occur with burns of the second degree, if the area of damage is more than 10% in children and exceeds 20% of the surface in adults. The trigger mechanism of this is the loss of blood plasma, the effect on the body of the decay products of tissues, which have a detrimental effect on the kidneys, causing their insufficiency.

Diagnostics of the blister after burn

The task of diagnosing a blister after a burn is to determine the thermal agent, the area of damage, localization, and depth. With burns of the 2nd degree, deep damages are not characteristic. To establish the area is often used the so-called rule of nine, according to which each part of the body has a certain percentage. For example, the head and neck, hand, shin, thigh are equated to 9% of the body, perineum - 1%, anterior and posterior surface of the trunk - 18% each, etc. The diagnosis contains a fraction, in the numerator of which the total area of the lesion is in percent, the area of deep damage in parentheses, the denominator - the degree of burn, and the affected part of the body. These parameters are necessary to assess the severity of the injury, the need for hospitalization, the choice of a suitable transport vehicle, the tactics of pre-hospital treatment. When infection of the burn wound, the temperature rises, the blood test shows an increased content of leukocytes (more than 8 thousand).

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis involves sampling. So, the pain test, which involves touching the surface of the burn, helps to determine its depth: with deep burns, the pain is not sensitive, with superficial pain. With the same purpose, a sample of the "hair" is carried out. Extraction of the hair with shallow lesions is accompanied by painful sensations. This test is most indicative for burns with boiling water and steam.

Who to contact?

Treatment of the blister after burn

What should I do if a blister forms after a burn? Treatment should begin with local therapeutic measures: stopping contact with an aggressive factor, removing foreign bodies, clothing from a damaged surface, cooling with ice or running water, and anesthesia. Relieve pain better than small doses of pain medications, but often. If the injuries are on the limbs, it's best to keep it in an elevated state. The skin around the burn is treated with an antiseptic. The main task at this stage is not to infect the infection, improve the local blood circulation, and establish metabolic processes. Help in the treatment of blisters after the burn special aerosols, ointments, solutions, hydrophobic coatings with paraffin and wax. If the area of the burn exceeds the size of the palm, or the area of the face, neck, and groin has suffered, it is necessary to contact the medical institution after the first urgent measures.

Can I pierce the blister after the burn?

If it's small, then it's best not to touch it. A large bubble can be punctured with a disinfected sharp object or trimmed, if you are sure of sterility, but in any case do not cut it. The exfoliated skin is the protection of the wound from the penetration of the infection.

Medications

The first actions after a burn consist in the treatment of the damaged area with the use of medications: antiseptics and hypertonic solutions, for example, saline solution. Antiseptics prevent the development of bacteria and microorganisms, and hence the formation of suppuration. Hydrogen peroxide, boric acid, a weak solution of potassium permanganate, silver nitrate, silver sulfadiosin, a solution of furacilin, etc. Can be used as such. Analgesics can be used to relieve pain: ibuprofen, nurofen, cytromone, citropak, ketonal, analgin, paracetamol, etc.

Nurofen refers to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with pronounced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. Produced for oral administration in the form of tablets, chewable tablets for children, capsules, suspension and syrup, for external use - as an ointment and gel. Oral daily dose of 0.2-0.8 g for 3-4 doses, externally - lubricate the lesion site 3-4 times a day. The drug is contraindicated for stomach ulcers, colitis, high blood pressure, heart failure, pregnancy in the 3rd trimester. Do not apply to an open wound. There is a possible side effect: nausea, vomiting, flatulence, oppression of hematopoiesis, increased pressure, allergies.

Than to process blisters after a burn? To normalize the tissues affected by the burn, special ointments, gels, solutions, aerosols are used: linkcoel, levosin, procane, nitacide, miramistin, olazole, panthenol, etc. We recommend the following ointments from blisters after a burn:

Lincocele - is available in ointments and gels. The active substance is an antibiotic, lincomycin, which determines the antimicrobial effect of the drug. It is used mainly for thermal burns. Apply a thin layer under the bandage once a day. Side effects occur rarely in the form of allergies. Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to the drug.

Nitacid - ointment for external use, a combined drug, which has an antibiotic in its composition, has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action. Apply under the bandage 2-3 times a week. Contraindicated in children, pregnant, lactating mothers and people prone to allergies to the drug. There may be adverse reactions in the form of skin rashes. With prolonged use in large areas, there may be headaches, difficulty breathing, nausea.

Successfully applied and sprays for healing burn wounds.

Panthenol Spray - applied once or twice a day to a site that requires treatment. If the face is damaged, do not spray directly, you must first apply to the hand, and then cover the foam with a burn. The use of panthenol can cause skin irritation, itching. Pregnant and lactating women can only be used as prescribed by the doctor, if the benefits exceed the risk of harming the child. Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to the drug.

The next stage of treatment of burns uses ointments that stimulate skin regeneration, which restore metabolic mechanisms in the cells of skin tissues, increasing the strength of collagen fibers. These include methyluracil, beponen, streptonitol, and others.

Bepantene ointment - is applied to the ground areas. The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor, depending on the complexity of the lesions. Side effects are possible as skin rashes, itching. Has no contraindications for pregnant women and children. In rare cases, it causes allergic manifestations.

In order not to damage the newly formed epithelium when bandaging, use mesh hydrophobic coatings with paraffin and wax.

What if the blister has burst after a burn?

If after the burn the blister has burst itself, then it is necessary to take all the above-described actions to avoid entering the infection into the wound, and in no case to cut the skin that formed the bladder. It will serve as a protective film against the penetration of bacteria. Than to process the bursted blister after a burn? The algorithm of actions is the same: treatment with antiseptic solution, anesthesia, application of ointments, sprays. Do you need a bandage for a burst blister after a burn? Yes, it is better to bandage. There is a new generation of special dressings that provide moisture to the environment, removal of serous fluid and necrotic tissue, maintaining a stable temperature, protecting against external infections. These dressings are treated with medications (gels, ointments, sprays), and their replacement is painless and can only be done once every two weeks. Well-established granuflex, aquasel, merlex, combinox, diosep, etc.

Vitamins

To accelerate the healing of a burn wound and strengthen its immunity, it is necessary to take vitamins. This will require vitamin C, which contributes to the formation of collagen - a fiber of the fibrous part of the rumen. Vitamin D, A, Group B will also help in healing. Vitamin E helps to heal the healing. Initially, it must be taken internally, and when the wound is tightened, an ointment with its content can be used to lubricate the burn surface.

Physiotherapeutic treatment

With minor injuries, physiotherapy methods are most likely not needed. In case of serious burns, they are a good method to speed up the regeneration of the skin, improve the blood supply to affected areas of the body, remove inflammation, anesthetize, reduce scarring. To do this, such physiotherapy methods as ultraviolet irradiation, electro- and ultrasound therapy, UHF-, laser-, magnetotherapy, darsenval, aeroionotherapy are suitable.

Alternative treatment

Alternative treatment can be resorted to if a minor injury is obtained as a result of a burn. In the recipes of alternative medicine, the use of various oils, fats of animal origin is often encountered. Official medicine is categorically against it. Therefore, in my recommendations I will limit myself to the oils of medicinal plants: fir, sea-buckthorn, mackerel - several times a day to lubricate them with a damaged surface. You can also apply washed cabbage leaf, grated raw potatoes, grated carrots, do baths in a weak saline solution. Aloe, Kalanchoe - all known plants that used to stand on almost every window sill, and now, unfortunately, are replaced by more fashionable ones. After tearing the leaf, it is necessary to remove the upper peel and expose the flesh, which will be in contact with the wound, secure with a bandage. Similarly, you can use the golden mustache. It is also recommended to use fresh urine for disinfection of the wound.

Herbal Treatment

There are many herbs in nature that can be used for burns. For people who have grown "on the ground," the most popular remedy for various wounds is the plantain leaf. To find it, you just have to bend down and tear it, it's everywhere around us. It should be well rinsed, applied to the wound and a bandage applied. Calendula has a reputation for healing plants. From its tincture, combined with Vaseline (1: 2), you can also prepare a medicine for burns. Scrolling on the grinder leaves burdock, you can use their pulp for lotions. In the same way, the rhubarb stems are added with honey, add to the damaged surface.

Homeopathy

With burns that cause the appearance of blisters, apply homeopathic remedies cantaris, urnica urens, apis, rus tox, sulfururicum acidum.

Kantaris - used for burns of any origin. A preparation is made from a spanish fly by rubbing it into powder. It is used both for external use and inside, starting from the sixth, sometimes 12 dilutions. For external use, a few drops of the drug are diluted in the water with a damaged surface.

Urnica Urens is a remedy made from the flowers of the nettle burning. From it do lotions on the burn area. As they dry up, they are moistened again. This drug is most often used for burns with boiling water with strong pain, itching. It markedly accelerates the healing time.

Apis is a preparation made on the basis of bee venom. In the treatment of blisters from burns, ointment with the addition of belladonna is used.

Rus tox - effective when getting the infection in the wound, suppuration. It is made from plant toxicodendron and is used as a homeopathic dilution.

Sulphuricum acidum - is used mainly for chemical burns, sulfuric acid is based on it. It is used in dilutions from 3 to 30.

All of the above homeopathic remedies have contraindications for hypersensitivity to the drug, undesirable for pregnant and lactating women, small children. Side effects can be in the form of redness, burning, itching occur when they get on the skin in a concentrated state.

Operative treatment

As a rule, burns of the second degree, which is characterized by the appearance of blisters, do not cause deep damage to the dermis, so they do not require surgical treatment. Blisters can simply be opened to accelerate healing, to allow the serous fluid to flow out.

Prevention

The best prevention of burns is compliance with the rules of behavior with various electrical appliances, fire, boiling water, household and other chemicals. It should also limit the time spent in the sun. Adult people need to feel responsible for children and spare no effort to protect them from dangerous contacts with the damaging agent.

Forecast

The prognosis of treatment of blisters after an uneven burn is favorable, healing takes up to two weeks. Extensive lesions cause a burn disease, which leads to the pathology of other organs and systems, reduces immunity. All this can have a different outcome, with a favorable significantly increased recovery time.

Last update: 01.06.2018
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