Allergy to cosmetics

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020

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Allergy to cosmetics is an acute reaction of the body, manifested in the form of itching, skin rashes and other accompanying symptoms after the direct use of cosmetics. Allergy to cosmetics can occur in almost any person. According to statistical data, about thirty thousand cases of allergic reaction to cosmetics are recorded every year, and the frequency of unrecorded cases can even be tens of times higher. The group at increased risk of an allergic reaction to cosmetics includes people with hypersensitive, thin and dry skin. In turn, the individual intolerance of any component does not depend on the type of skin and can manifest itself spontaneously after the application of any cosmetic product. Allergic manifestations can be concentrated on any parts of the body, including affecting the face, eyes, lips, etc. The most common allergens in the composition of cosmetics are preservatives, perfumes and dyes. The occurrence of an allergic reaction can also affect the age or seasonal changes in skin type, an overabundance of cosmetics on the body, non-compliance with the rules for its use and the use of expired cosmetic products.

Allergy to cosmetics, as a rule, is an individual reaction of the body and can be manifested by using even quite harmless components of cosmetics for the face and body. After using unsuitable cosmetics, your symptoms may appear after a few days.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3]

Symptoms of an allergy to cosmetics

Allergy to cosmetics symptoms include the following: the skin turns red and starts itching, there is swelling, burning, tingling. There are two types of allergic manifestations on cosmetic products - it's a simple dermatitis and allergic. Symptoms with simple dermatitis are accompanied by the onset of inflammatory processes of the skin - redness, swelling, itching, which appear after direct contact of the skin with the allergen. As a rule, simple dermatitis occurs much more often than allergic and occurs when irritation and damage to the skin. The initial signs of simple dermatitis include itching, skin peeling, rashes red, watery blisters. Allergic dermatitis is an individual reaction to a particular substance. Symptoms are usually the same as with simple dermatitis - redness, swelling, rashes, the skin becomes very sensitive and starts itching, there may be a runny nose, a darkening of the skin around the eyes. Manifestations of an allergic reaction to cosmetics can be localized on the surface of virtually any part of the body.

Allergy to decorative cosmetics

Allergies to decorative cosmetics may occur due to the individual intolerance of any of its components. In particular, an allergic reaction can occur on the following constituents of decorative cosmetics:

  • Preservatives. They are one of the main allergens that make up cosmetics. In cosmetics, this element is added to increase shelf life. Preservatives in cosmetics are found, for example, in the form of salicylic acid, benzoic acid, etc.
  • Dyes. Colorants are contained in almost all cosmetics. When choosing cosmetics, preference should be given to products containing natural dyes.
  • Elements for bleaching. Bleaching agents, such as, for example, hydroquinone, hydrogen peroxide, are part of creams and lotions and can cause allergies.
  • Fragrances. To make the fragrance cosmetics manufacturers use different fragrances. The cheaper the cosmetics, the higher the probability that it contains artificial fragrances that can provoke an allergic reaction. Natural fragrances in turn can also cause allergies.
  • Bioadditives. Bioactive additives, including natural ones, are also often a causative agent of an allergic reaction.
  • Formaldehyde resins. They are part of the lacquer for painting nails.

trusted-source[4], [5], [6], [7], [8]

How does the allergy to cosmetics appear?

First of all, it should be noted that the manifestations of allergies in each person are strictly individual, but there is a conditional division of allergic reactions for the most common and common symptoms. Firstly, this skin irritation, which occurs when the skin is directly contacted with the irritant and manifests itself in the form of red spots, peeling, wrinkling of the skin. There may be formation of small bubbles on the surface of the skin, discomfort when touching the skin, there is usually no itching in such cases. Secondly, it is an excessive sensitivity of the skin, which may not appear externally, but there may be unpleasant sensations accompanied by tingling or tightening of the skin. The third group of allergic manifestations includes immediate allergic reactions, which can make themselves felt even after a week after contacting the allergen. In such cases, the skin begins to itch, until a very strong itch appears, blushes, flakes off, a rash is covered. Treatment in the presence of unwanted skin reactions after using a cosmetic product depends on how the allergy to cosmetics is manifested. Common manifestations for various forms of allergy can be itching, erythema, eczematids, eczema. Erythemas appear as red spots, which change their color to pale when pressed on the affected area. Exematids can be placed in isolation in certain places or spread throughout the body. As a rule, they have the appearance of round or oval formations with a pale pink color, which can be covered with a thin crust, and do not cause itching. Eczema manifests itself in the form of various eruptions on the skin, causing burning and itching.

Allergy on the face from cosmetics

Allergy to the face from cosmetics can occur when using various masks and facial scrubs, cleansing lotions, foams, tonics, as well as powder, cream, blush, shadows, carcass, lipstick, etc. When you see an allergic reaction from cosmetics on the face, you can use the following means: moisten a handkerchief in milk or yogurt and yogurt and gently wipe the skin of the face, after which wash with warm boiled water. To wipe your face with allergy, you can also use herbal infusions, for example, chamomile or sage, as well as black tea. Applications from potato starch can also help in the event of an allergic reaction to cosmetics. Potato starch or rice is applied to the affected areas for about forty minutes, after which the skin is carefully cleaned with water and blotted with a paper towel. Depending on the degree of manifestation of allergies, antihistamines, local ointments, and calcium preparations may be prescribed for treatment. For the period of treatment from the use of any kind of cosmetics is recommended to abstain.

trusted-source[9], [10], [11]

Allergy in the eyes of cosmetics

Allergy in the eyes of cosmetics can occur when using shadows, mascara, pencil and other cosmetics that directly contact the eye area. The most common forms of allergic reactions in the eyes are allergic dermatitis of the eyelids and various kinds of conjunctivitis. When allergic dermatitis occurs, the eyelid lesions occur, characterized by reddening, itching and accompanied by puffiness of the skin of the face, the appearance of a rash. With allergic conjunctivitis, redness and tearing of the eyes are noted, and sometimes mucus secretion. In acute allergic reaction, conjunctivitis may be accompanied by a distinct glass-like swelling of the mucous membrane of the eye. For any manifestations of eye allergy, immediately contact an ophthalmologist or an allergist. A qualified examination will help to correctly differentiate the symptoms and establish a diagnosis, after which the necessary treatment will be prescribed.

trusted-source[12], [13], [14]

What to do with allergies to cosmetics?

What to do with allergies to cosmetics, the dermatologist or allergist must decide directly in each case individually. Before applying to a doctor, the following measures can be taken:

  1. If the first signs of an allergy occur, you should immediately cleanse all the cosmetics from the skin and wash it off with plenty of water. Eyes can be washed with a decoction of chamomile or non-tempering tea. Categorically, it is strictly forbidden to use makeup before conducting a diagnostic examination and examination by a doctor. Also, while the allergen is not determined, inhalation of sharp odors, contact of the skin with detergents, perfumes, etc. Should be avoided.
  2. Take an antihistamine drug (Suprastin, Tavegil, Tsetrin, Claritin), since the treatment of any kind of allergy is based primarily on the use of this group of drugs.
  3. Nettle can be used as an alternative. Decoction of this plant should be consumed in about half a liter a day, as it is able to inhibit the development of an allergic reaction.

Treatment of allergies to cosmetics

If an allergy to cosmetics occurs, treatment should begin with the cessation of its use. Affected skin areas immediately need to be washed with water and soaked with a napkin, after which you can lubricate with zinc ointment. If eczema appeared on the skin, it should be treated with water and cortisone ointment to reduce the inflammatory processes. The use of antihistamines is mandatory in the occurrence of any type of allergic reactions. To treat allergies, you can use drugs such as claritin, suprastin, loratadine. Claritin takes one tablet (10 mg) once a day. Suprastin is prescribed for ingestion of 0.025 grams two to three times a day during meals. Loratadine - one tablet (10 mg) once a day. After eliminating the symptoms of allergies, an application test is recommended to detect the allergen.

Cosmetics that do not cause allergies

Cosmetics that do not cause allergies, or hypoallergenic cosmetics, are intended mainly for people prone to such disorders. However, it should be noted that such products only reduce the risk of allergic reaction and is not an absolute guarantee of its absence. It is obvious that in different people the reaction to the same product can be absolutely opposite, so even carrying out clinical trials can not fully guarantee that you will not have an allergic reaction. Therefore, cosmetics that do not cause allergies - this is only a conventional name for a certain group of cosmetic products containing in their composition substances that cause a minimal risk of allergies. As a rule, hypoallergenic cosmetics do not have fragrances and coloring agents in their composition. When choosing cosmetics, be sure to study the label with a description of its components. Before direct application of cosmetics on the face and neck area, it is recommended to conduct a preliminary test, spreading a small patch of skin on the elbow. In case of reddening of the skin or other undesirable reactions, the cosmetic product should be washed off immediately, then take an antihistamine. From the further use of such cosmetics, of course, should be discarded.

trusted-source[15], [16]

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