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Last reviewed: 23.04.2024

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An allergist is a medical specialist who studies the causes of the onset, course, as well as the symptoms of allergic reactions and diseases. The doctor of this specialization has methods of diagnosing, preventing, treating allergies and immuno-conditioned manifestations.

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Who is an allergist?

Allergology is a relatively young branch in medicine, which is becoming more and more in demand among patients of any age. Sadly, the tendency of growth in the number of people suffering from allergic diseases has been noted.

A competent allergist should possess not only broad knowledge in the medical field, but also be able to distinguish a cold from an allergy attack. The task of a highly qualified specialist is to find the cause of the disease and the purpose of optimal treatment.

Who is an allergist? First of all, a doctor who recommends preventive measures to prevent seasonal discomforts as a result of reaction to pollen, etc. This specialist solves issues related to the correction and enhancement of immunity, as well as gives instructions for changing the diet in order to improve the patient's condition.

When should I contact an allergist?

Man can adapt to discomfort in his life. Not paying attention to the first manifestations of allergy, we continue to give all the forces to work, "seizing" the disease with another pill. Many people have to avoid certain foods, communicate with animals, experience unpleasant moments during a period of turbulent flowering and poplar fluff. Confident that this will pass, you just have to suffer, we completely forget about the serious consequences of such behavior. Constant attacks of allergens destructively act on the human body, leading to irreversible processes.

To the question: "When should I go to an allergist?" There is an unambiguous answer - at the first suspicions of an allergic reaction. The sooner you come to an allergist, the better for you.

Symptoms that are a reason for visiting a doctor: 

  • chronic rhinitis, incessant sneezing, sensation of itching in the nasal sinuses and their stuffiness; 
  • seasonal manifestations of the common cold; 
  • sudden coughing attacks, excluding sputum excretion, which do not pass for a long time; 
  • unexpected shortness of breath, respiratory spasms, lack of oxygen; 
  • constant redness and discharge from the eyes; 
  • rashes or an incessant desire to scratch the skin.

The allergist is also engaged in identifying the causes: 

  • exacerbation of chronic diseases; 
  • sleep disorders; 
  • increased fatigue; 
  • decrease in working capacity; 
  • headaches, tied to the reception of a certain food.

What tests should I take when I contact an allergist?

Laboratory methods of investigation are necessary for an accurate diagnosis. Depending on the patient's specific symptomatology, it will be determined on an individual basis which analyzes to be taken when addressing an allergist.

The main laboratory methods of examination: 

  • when suspected of fungus, scraping on the cytology from the surface of the tongue, from the external auditory meatus and tonsils; 
  • the presence of dysbacteriosis and the detection of sensitivity to bacteriophages are determined by the analysis of stool; 
  • a blood test for bacapsis; 
  • study of discharge from the abscesses, scrapings from the skin of the skin, from the ear, etc. (determine the prevalence of flora, the response to antibiotics / bacteriophages); 
  • confirm the presence of bacterial, mycoplasma, and viral infection, as well as the presence of parasites possibly by methods of serological and molecular biological (PCR) studies; 
  • detection of specific IgE for serum for susceptibility to plant pollen, house dust, food or fungal allergens, and epidermal intolerance; 
  • Diagnosis of reactions to food allergens using a test kit.

What diagnostic methods does the allergist use?

During the initial consultation, the allergist talks with the patient and finds out when the allergic manifestations have found themselves for the first time, their current and state of health at the moment.

For the purpose of more accurate diagnosis, the doctor applies: 

  • computer diagnostics of the state of the whole organism, which makes it possible to establish whether the described manifestations are allergic or are the result of another disease; 
  • gemoskanirovanie - shows the activity of blood cells, as well as the presence of parasites in internal environments or infections; 
  • testing hypersensitivity to food.

To make a correct diagnosis allows a comprehensive study. What diagnostic methods does an allergist use for bronchial asthma and allergic exacerbations?

If you suspect a bronchial asthma, first of all, the doctor will ask about allergic diseases in your family and near relatives, as well as the conditions of life and workplace. To determine the presence of wheezing on the background of weakened breathing allows auscultation. To study the respiratory function, allergists use broncho-provocative testing. The doctor will need blood test / sputum analysis and a cytological study of nasal secretion.

In the arsenal of physicians there are methods of skin testing and detection of allergies for blood analysis. The allergist in some cases appoints an ultrasound or X-ray study to exclude internal diseases.

It should be noted that the diagnosis option is selected individually in each case.

What does an allergist do?

A person with allergy symptoms rarely independently can understand the root cause of a painful condition and an allergist comes to his aid. During the consultation, the doctor collects data on the course of the disease, finds out a possible hereditary predisposition, only then assigns laboratory methods of investigation.

What the allergist does: 

  • preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures for the purpose of getting rid of bronchial asthma, dermatitis (including atopic), conjunctivitis and rhinitis, pollinosis, Quincke edema, etc .; 
  • the introduction of an allergen-specific therapeutic effect, which is divided into - short, full preseason and year-round therapy; 
  • a special diagnosis of the state of immunity (carrying out of the immunogram) and its correction; 
  • maintenance or restoration of protective functions of an organism.

Human health directly depends on the defenses of the body, on the result of the struggle between the cells of immunity and pathogenic carriers. The list of morbid manifestations from immune disorders increases almost daily. Cope with the recurrence of herpes on the lips, with draining pneumonia, rhinitis, anaphylaxis, thyroid problems, collagenoses and many other diseases will help an allergist-immunologist.

What diseases are treated by an allergist?

The first manifestations of an allergic disease in the form of rash, edema, general disease state require consultation with an allergist. Timely appeal to a specialist will save you from the weight of unpleasant and severe consequences of such immunodeficiency, leukocytosis, idiopathic urticaria, bronchial asthma, Quincke's edema, etc.

What diseases are treated by an allergist? The list of diseases within the competence of this specialist includes: 

  • bronchial asthma; 
  • Pollinosis; 
  • not cured, year-round rhinitis; 
  • conjunctivitis; 
  • hives in acute and chronic form; 
  • angioedema; 
  • atopic / seborrheic dermatitis, as well as contact allergic; 
  • allergic manifestations caused by taking a certain type of food or medicines; 
  • an insect allergic reaction - after an insect bite; 
  • chronic diseases caused by the state of secondary immunodeficiency; 
  • problems of upper / lower respiratory organs (rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, etc.); 
  • chronic fatigue syndrome; 
  • recurrence of viral infections - herpes, HPV, etc .;
  • relapses of purulent infections - for example, furunculosis; 
  • progressive fungal lesions; 
  • Gynecological diseases - papilloma virus, colpitis, etc .; 
  • urological diseases - prostatitis in chronic form, pyelonephritis; 
  • uninterrupted itching.

Why is it so important to come to an allergist's consultation? Having taken a cold for the sign of a cold, a person begins to treat a viral infection. As a result, the balance in the body is disturbed, immune functions are weakened. The allergen, in turn, continues its destructive effect, turning the runny nose into a chronic one, adding bronchitis or asthmic conditions to the cough. Do not self-medicate.

Advices of a doctor of an allergist

Living a full-fledged life for allergic people can be very difficult: constant monitoring of nutrition, preventive measures before active flowering, abandonment of pets, etc.

The advice of an allergist doctor includes the need to completely shield yourself from allergens. Of course, not everyone has the opportunity to leave during the spring-summer period in order not to contact pollen. If you stay at home, you should avoid hiking outdoors on a hot, windy day and trips to nature. Help to survive the state of increased discomfort air conditioners and air cleaners.

With an allergy exacerbation, wet cleaning should be done more often, and an old vacuum cleaner replaced with a new model with HEPA filter. To ease the next attack it is possible, washing out the nasal sinuses with saline solution, and the eyes with usual warm water.

If you are at risk or are already suffering from allergic reactions, you need to increase your immunity.

A competent allergist possesses general clinical knowledge that allows him to evaluate the therapeutic, endocrinological and immune status of a patient, to recognize the most common diseases that appear against the background of an allergic reaction, including skin and infectious diseases.


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