Manifestation of allergic reactions
The manifestation of allergic reactions can be observed from the cardiovascular, digestive and respiratory systems, as well as from the skin. The main manifestations of allergic reactions depending on the type of allergy are skin rashes, redness and painful tickling skin irritation, eczema, erythema, eczematids, edema and redness of the oral mucosa, abnormalities in the digestive system, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea . The patient may get watery, a wheezing cough, a runny nose, wheezing in the chest, a headache, reddening of the eyelids. Manifestations of an allergy can be concentrated virtually on any part of the body, including the face, lips and eyes. Allergic manifestations are divided into respiratory, food and skin. Respiratory manifestations of allergic reactions affect various parts of the respiratory tract. These include allergic year-round and seasonal rhinitis (pollinosis), allergic tracheobronchitis, bronchial asthma. The main symptoms of allergic rhinitis are pruritus and nasal obstruction, frequent sneezing, discharge from the nose of a watery consistency, lacrimation, general deterioration of well-being. At a tracheobronchitis of an allergic nature there is a dry cough, more often at night. One of the most severe forms of respiratory allergic reactions is bronchial asthma, accompanied by attacks of suffocation. Manifestations of food allergies can be quite diverse. Often, it affects the skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, eczema and neurodermatitis may occur. Most often, food allergic manifestations are localized on the bends of elbows and knees, on the neck, face and wrists. Skin allergic reactions are manifested in the form of urticaria, edema Quincke, atopic dermatitis. With hives, there is a rash and swelling of a certain area of the body, which, as a rule, does not cause itching and passes for a short time. Quincke's edema is an extremely dangerous form of allergy manifestation. In addition to skin rashes, soreness, puffiness and itching occur, and with a laryngeal edema, there is an attack of suffocation. When atopic dermatitis develops inflammation of the skin, which can be combined with rhinoconjunctivitis, bronchial asthma.
Local allergic reaction
Local allergic reaction can be manifested from the skin, gastrointestinal tract, mucous membranes, respiratory tract. Local allergic reaction to the skin is characterized by its dryness, hypersensitivity, itching, redness, rash, blistering. Cutaneous manifestations of allergies can change the place of localization, moving to different parts of the skin. An example of a local allergic reaction is atopic or contact dermatitis. Local allergic reaction may manifest from the gastrointestinal tract, as a rule, its symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea. With the localization of allergy symptoms in the eye area, the patient complains of lacrimation, swelling and redness of the eyelids, burning and painful tickling irritation in the eye. Such symptoms occur, for example, with allergic conjunctivitis. On the part of the respiratory system, signs of a local allergic reaction are rhinitis or nasal congestion, dry coughing, sneezing, wheezing in the chest, difficulty breathing (for example, with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma).
Allergic skin reaction
Allergic reaction to the skin, or allergic dermatitis, is characterized by a sharp inflammatory process on the surface of the skin and is divided into the following types:
Contact allergic dermatitis occurs only in persons who have specific to any substance immune cells-T-lymphocytes. The cause of such an allergy can be, for example, a completely harmless substance that does not cause a healthy person no symptoms. However, it should be noted that contact allergic dermatitis may occur when contacting with aggressive agents that are part of various medications, dyes, detergents, etc.
Toxico-allergic dermatitis is characterized by acute inflammation of the skin surface, sometimes - mucous membranes, developing under the influence of toxic-allergic factors, penetrating the body through the system of breathing or digestion, and also when injected into a vein, under the skin and into the muscle. Therefore, the effect on the skin is not direct, but hematogenous.
Atopic dermatitis (diffuse neurodermatitis). The main symptoms are itching and rashes on the skin, including the face, armpits, elbows and knees bends. This form of allergy can be the result of a genetic predisposition and have a recurring course. There are suggestions that in the development of atopic dermatitis, such factors as infectious pathologies, violation of hygiene standards, climate change, food allergens, dust, chronic stress play a role.
Fixed erythema is characterized by the formation of one or more round spots about two to three centimeters in size, which after a few days acquire a bluish tinge first, and then a brown one. In the middle of such a spot a blister can form. In addition to the skin surface, the fixed pigmentary erythema can affect the genitals and the mucous membrane of the oral cavity.
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Allergic reactions in stomatology
Allergic reactions in dentistry can occur when a patient is injected with any medication. Clinical symptoms of such reactions may include swelling and development of the inflammatory process at the injection site, hyperemia and painful tickling of the skin, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, urticaria, swelling in the lips, difficulty swallowing, coughing, and in the most severe cases anaphylactic shock , loss of consciousness, suffocation. To provide first aid to a patient in any dental office, preparations such as prednisolone, hydrocortisone, epinephrine, euphyllin, antihistamines should be available.
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Allergic reaction to anesthesia
An allergic reaction to anesthesia, more precisely, to an anesthetic solution is relatively common, due to the presence of preservatives, antioxidants and other substances in addition to the anesthetics themselves. Clinical manifestations of an allergic reaction to anesthesia are divided into light, medium and heavy. With a mild allergy, itching and redness of the skin, a few days can be noted subfebrile temperature.
Allergy of moderate severity develops within a few hours and can pose a danger to the life of the patient. To severe reactions include the edema of Quincke, accompanied by an attack of asphyxia, as well as anaphylactic shock. Anaphylactic shock can develop within minutes after anesthesia, sometimes appears instantly and can occur even with the administration of small doses of anesthetic. After the introduction of an anesthetic, tingling, itching on the skin of the face, hands and feet, a feeling of anxiety, a decline in strength, a heaviness in the chest, pain behind the sternum and in the region of the heart, as well as in the abdomen and in the head. When a mild allergy to anesthesia is injected intramuscularly, antihistamine, for example, a 2% solution of suprastin. For allergies of moderate severity, the administration of antihistamines is combined with symptomatic treatment. With a sharp deterioration in the muscle or a vein injected glucocorticoids. The first aid for anaphylactic shock is the injection of an adrenaline hydrochloride solution (0.1%) into the anesthetic site.
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Allergic reactions in pregnancy
Allergic reactions during pregnancy increase the risk of a similar reaction in the fetus. If a pregnant woman has an allergy, taking various medications can affect the blood supply of the fetus, so their choice should always be agreed with the attending physician in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects. For the prevention of food allergies, it is advisable to prescribe a hypoallergenic diet with the exception of foods that most often cause allergic reactions. Also recommended is the intake of vitamin-mineral complexes. Pregnant women should avoid inhalation of tobacco smoke, it is necessary to regularly ventilate the room and prevent the accumulation of dust, contact with animals should also be limited. Allergic reactions during pregnancy can occur against the background of hormonal changes in the body and, as a rule, take place at the period of twelve to fourteen weeks. A prerequisite for any allergic reactions is the exclusion of contact with the allergen.
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Allergic reactions in children
One of the most common allergic reactions in children is atopic dermatitis. It should be noted that an incorrect tactic of treating a disease can lead to the development of a chronic form. The main symptoms of allergic dermatitis include rashes on various parts of the body, accompanied by itching. The main reason for the occurrence of such conditions is a genetic predisposition. Among allergic factors that can provoke atopic dermatitis in infants and young children, there is a hypersensitivity to the protein of cow's milk and egg whites. In children of older age, atopic dermatitis can cause dust, animal hair, fungus, plant pollen, worms, synthetic clothing, temperature and humidity changes, hard water, stress and exercise, etc. In addition to itching and rash, reddening of the skin is noted, it becomes dry, thickens and flakes. Complications of atopic dermatitis can be a fungal attack on the skin and mucous surfaces.
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Allergic reaction to vaccination
An allergic reaction to the inoculation may manifest as urticaria, Quincke edema, Lyell syndrome, serum sickness, anaphylactic shock. In case of hypersensitivity to antibiotics or egg white, the risk of allergies to vaccination against CKD (measles, rubella, mumps) is high, with yeast intolerance - for injection against hepatitis B. Allergic reaction to vaccination in the form of urticaria is accompanied by itching and skin rashes, develops as a rule , from a few minutes to several hours after the injection. With Lyell's syndrome, a rash appears on the body, blisters, skin starts to itch.
Such a reaction can develop for three days after the introduction of the vaccine. In case of an allergic reaction to vaccination, one to two weeks after its administration, serum sickness may develop, combining the symptoms of urticaria and Quincke edema, accompanied by fever, increased lymph nodes, spleen, joint pain.
Serum sickness can have a negative impact on the functioning of the kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system. Anaphylactic shock in an allergic reaction to vaccination can occur rapidly or within three hours, and is along with Quincke's edema an extremely life-threatening condition, accompanied by a sharp drop in blood pressure and an asphyxia attack. In cases of such reactions, anti-shock therapy is provided.
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Allergic reaction to Mantoux
An allergic reaction to Mantoux can occur with allergies to tuberculin. In addition, the response to injection of tuberculin is one of the forms of allergic reactions, since it is, for the most part, an allergen, and not an antigen. But the process of interaction between tuberculin and the immune system remains completely unexplored. The Mantoux test parameters may be affected by food or drug allergies, allergic dermatitis, as well as any other types of allergic reactions. Also, the factors influencing the results of the test include the transferred infections of a different nature, chronic diseases, immunity to non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, the age of the patient. An allergic reaction to Mantoux can be the result of excessive sensitivity of the skin, an unbalanced diet in children, may occur during menstruation in female patients. Glaive invasion, adverse environmental factors, and disturbances in the storage conditions of tuberculin can also affect the results of the test.
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