Oncourologist is a highly specialized doctor who identifies and treats malignant and benign tumors of the urinary system of man, as well as male genital organs.
Who is oncourologist?
Oncourologist solves the complex task of treating tumors of the urinary system (kidneys, bladder, urethra) and male genital organs. Minimally invasive endoscopic operations are applied, where possible, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted radiation therapy.
Oncosurgery is very traumatic. But thanks to minimally invasive operations this problem gradually began to recede into the past.
What surgical interventions are conducted by oncourologists?
Removes the testicle (orhfunkullectomy).
Removes the prostate.
Removes the bladder.
Removes the kidney affected by the tumor.
Removes the adrenal gland, affected both by benign and malignant tumor.
Performs the installation of uroventa patients after removal of the prostate, which allows them to perform their own urination.
Treats the side effect of radiation therapy - radiation cystitis.
Qualified oncourologist owns a full arsenal of medical methods accepted by international standards.
The main medical problem that oncourologists face is prostate cancer. Every year in the EU countries 90,000 new cases of this disease are detected. In our country, most patients die within a year. The risk factor for its development is old age. Heredity also has a certain significance. It is recommended for prevention to limit the diet of animal fats. Also, the risk of developing prostate cancer in people working in hazardous industries that have contact with cadmium is increased.
Neither prostate cancer, which is considered to be very serious before, bladder cancer is not a verdict today. You can prevent cancer by completely abandoning bad habits. Blood in the urine, or more frequent than usual, urination, or pain when urinating, should not be left out. Not always it is signs of a cystitis, sometimes so the cancer shows itself.
When should I go to an oncologist?
Specialty of oncourologist is very actual today. Malignant tumors of the genitourinary system have become widespread even in developed European countries and the United States. Our situation is not very good because of the unfavorable ecological situation.
The risk of contracting prostate cancer is increased after 60 years. They are more often affected by blacks, less often by representatives of the Mongoloid race. Disturbing symptoms of prostate cancer: frequent urination, pain during urination, frequent need to get up at night to urinate, pain during ejaculation and weight loss.
To suspect prostate cancer cancer oncologist can by means of rectal examination. Confirmation of the diagnosis can be obtained by ultrasound or MRI.
A sign of another insidious disease - bladder cancer is the blood in the urine. The diagnosis is confirmed by cystoscopy or ultrasound of the bladder in a filled state. It is also possible to diagnose bladder cancer by urine analysis. After removal of the tumor or the entire organ, a BCG vaccine stimulating immunity is administered to prevent relapses. Immune cells attack the remaining cancers and kill them. Cancer no longer comes back. In men, along with the bladder, the prostate is removed, in women - the uterus. The bladder is formed from the bowel. The operation is quite complicated technically, so there is another option - the ureter is excreted into the rectum.
What kind of tests do you need to pass to an oncourologist?
Onco-urologist will individually make you a survey plan: you may need a blood test for oncomarkers, a testicle or prostate puncture, cystoscopy, ultrasound, CT, X-ray of the genitourinary system with contrast agent. A huge diagnostic value has a digital rectal examination of the prostate, mandatory once a year for all men over 50 years. To clarify the diagnosis of prostate cancer helps a special blood test from a vein - PSA. The day before this test is done, you should exclude alcohol from coffee. The result of the analysis may be distorted in prostatitis, prostate adenoma, after recent cystoscopy or prostate massage. Elevated parameters of PSA analysis do not always indicate that you have cancer, but should be alerted. Cancer can be confirmed only after an ultrasound or an MRI.
What does oncologist do?
Oncourologist - a doctor who studies how the tumors of the genitourinary system flow and heals, prevents these diseases. Oncourology treats cancer with both medication and surgical methods, and with the help of irradiation.
Oncourology is not a direction of urology, but a separate science. Pirogov also devoted several of his works to this field of medicine. Also oncology was developed and other well-known scientists: Kosinsky, Fedorov, Kadyan.
Special achievements have been made by scientists in the treatment of kidney cancer. Do not always need its complete removal. Doctors try to perform organ-saving operations, remove only the tumor. Of course, in the later stages it is necessary to remove the kidney, but if the disease is detected early, a lump and a certain amount of surrounding tissue is excised through laparoscopic access. And in the future such a kidney still serves the patient for many years. Mandatory long-term monitoring of the patient and dispensary records. With timely detection of 15-year survival rate - 85%. Particularly at risk of smoking are smoking, hypertensive patients suffering from obesity and diabetes mellitus, people whose relatives have had kidney cancer, people with chronic kidney failure and non-oncological kidney diseases, taking long-term diuretics, working with varnishes, paints, fertilizers. With the growth of the tumor, complaints of pain in the abdomen or lower back are possible, further tumor metastases to the lungs give shortness of breath and a cough with blood. With metastases, neurologic symptoms appear in the brain. Possible loss of appetite, weight or hemoglobin level in the blood. Begin the diagnosis of kidney cancer always with ultrasound. If there is a suspicion of cancer, a kidney MRI is prescribed.
With kidney cancer, surgical treatment is supplemented with immunotherapy. In the future, the patient is observed in oncourologist for several years. Every year, you need to take blood and urine tests and do ultrasound. Severe renal failure after the removal of one kidney is very rare. You can not take long-term medications with one kidney, especially aspirin, paracetamol, you need to watch for life the weight, pressure and blood sugar level.
Most of the cancer does not manifest itself at first! For artists, workers in the chemical industry, kidney and bladder cancer poses a real threat. The peak detection of cancer of the kidney and bladder occurs at age 50 years. It can be suspected by the presence of blood in the urine. Unfortunately, bladder cancer gives frequent relapses.
Quite a different situation with testicular cancer. It is revealed already in 25-30 years. The cancer of the testicle is well treated with chemotherapy, so you can often do without surgery.
They cope well with genitourinary cancer in Israel, where prices are lower than in the US, and the quality is the same. But we also have good specialists, for example, in the Kiev Cancer Institute.
Oncourologist also deals with treatment of prostate cancer. His symptoms are pain in the perineum and genitals. To confirm the diagnosis, you need a blood test for oncomarkers and puncture, ultrasound, MRI.
What diseases are treated by oncourologists?
Oncourologist studies the course of tumors of the genitourinary sphere. Urinary organs include the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Male genital organs are also in the competence of this doctor - the testicles and their appendages, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis.
Smoking, obesity, estrogen intake, work with heavy metals increases the risk of kidney cancer.
Testicular cancer often occurs with infertility and congenital malformations of the testicles. Oncologist should be examined regularly after 55 years. Men need to undergo a regular rectal examination of the prostate gland on a regular basis.
Oncourologist also deals with the plasticity of the bladder after its removal, radiofrequency ablation of kidney tumors, chemotherapy and radiotherapy of all cancers in urology.
Advices of the oncourologist doctor
In the early stages, malignant tumors can always be completely cured. There is no one analysis, which immediately can establish a diagnosis of cancer. Yes, some forms of cancer can be assumed by the presence of specific proteins in the blood. They are called oncomarkers. The problem is that cancer, especially in the early stages, has no symptoms, according to which the patient could accurately say that he has cancer. Therefore, preventive examinations are so important.
The use of vitamins in the oncology process is a rather contradictory aspect. For example, antioxidants can prevent damage to cancer cells by radiation therapy. Enteral nutrition may be recommended if the condition is very severe.
Moderate physical activity of cancer patients is safe, reduce the state of asthenia and weakness. If you were sedentary before your illness, start with minimal activity. Walking is useful.
After treatment for many months, weakness, neuropathy, and taste change may persist. People with obesity have an increased risk of recurrence of cancer.
In this article, we touched on the issues of such a complex medical specialization, as oncourology. Oncourologist is a specialist who can give you a professional opinion developing tactics of treating genitourinary tumors.
Found an error? Select it and press Ctrl + Enter.
Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Oncological diseases in the oral cavity are quite common and recently their growth has increased. External contaminants, quality of nutrition and many other reasons provoke weakening of our antitumor protection in the body.
A very rare disease - adamanthoma - is a malignant formation of the bone system. The specificity of adamanthinoma is that this tumor originates from cellular enamel structures. The disease at this time is still at the stage of study, as in its etiology there are still many controversial and obscure points.