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Oncologist and gynecologist

Oncologist-gynecologist (oncogynecologist) is a doctor who has knowledge of obstetrics and gynecology, trained in diagnostic methods, as well as options for treatment and prevention of tumors of various types of female reproductive system.

The medical branch of oncogynecology has a narrow specialization, namely: the study of malignant neoplasms of the female sexual sphere, including breast cancer.

Who is an oncologist / gynecologist?

The oncologist-gynecologist is a highly qualified specialist, combining knowledge of therapy and surgery, diagnosing neoplasms of female genital organs of benign and malignant type, determining the method of treatment in each specific case.

The oncologist-gynecologist is a doctor who studies the causes of the formation and development of cancer cells, the clinical course of tumor processes and introduces new methods of diagnosing and treating oncology at different stages of manifestation. Thirdly, the doctor conducting important preventive work to prevent malignant tumors.

When should I go to an oncologist / gynecologist?

The oncologist-gynecologist advises patients in the direction of a therapist or obstetrician-gynecologist who suspected pre-cancerous / cancerous processes (leukoplakia, vulva kraurosis, etc.), and also in the detection of various neoplasms outside and inside the genital area.

To pass a survey is necessary when identifying such initial symptoms: 

  • putrefactive smell of the genitals; 
  • disruption of the rectum; 
  • the appearance of itching / burning in the vulva; 
  • dysfunction of urination; 
  • pain syndrome of the lower abdomen and in the lumbar zone; 
  • if there are unhealthy discharge (whites) from the vagina of bloody, serous, purulent or mixed type; 
  • presence of general intoxication of the body; 
  • shortness of breath; 
  • increased abdominal volume; 
  • lack of appetite and a sharp, causeless weight loss; 
  • contact bleeding is detected.

Identified with self-diagnosis of the breast nodular neoplasm or tumor will be an indication for contacting a mammologist.

What tests do you need to pass to an oncologist / gynecologist?

The oncologist-gynecologist, if necessary and according to the indications, directs the patient to additional laboratory tests. On a question, what analyzes it is necessary to hand over at the reference to the oncologist-gynecologist? It is impossible to answer unambiguously because of the specific course of the disease in each specific case. For example, the analysis for the oncoprotein CA-125 is used to recognize ovarian cancer. In the case of uterine myoma it is recommended to undergo a scheduled examination of the gynecologist at least once every six months with a mandatory pelvic ultrasound.

According to the results of a blood test, it is impossible to reliably differentiate a malignant tumor, so blood sampling is done for biochemistry and hormones. To clarify the clinical picture, the oncologist-gynecologist is helped by smears on cytology and histological examination of the cervix.

Do not try to interpret the test results yourself and panic beforehand. Of course, a decrease in the level of hemoglobin and an increase in the quantitative content of cancer markers in the blood is inherent in the oncological process, but a similar situation is observed in pregnancy. Therefore, leave your attempts to decipher the data of laboratory research and trust professionals.

What diagnostic methods does the oncologist-gynecologist use?

Timely diagnosis of oncology implies the carrying out of preventive methods at least 1-2 times a year, subject to obligatory cytological examination and Schiller's test.

Given that most malignant processes occur in the absence of symptoms, what diagnostic methods does the oncologist-gynecologist use? Armed with an experienced specialist: the method of palpation, the results of laboratory tests of the smear, blood and urine. As an additional diagnostic technology, the oncologist-gynecologist applies: 

  • vaginal ultrasound examination; 
  • uterine sounding; 
  • research of hormonal background; 
  • methods of computer, positron emission tomography; 
  • laparoscopic and colposcopic examination; 
  • polypectomy and hysteroscopy; 
  • scintigraphy; 
  • biopsy of excision species; 
  • oncogenetic tests for detection of gene mutations (BRCA 1-2) and detection of an oncogene (RAS); 
  • diagnostic / fractional scraping.

Biopsy is supported by histology and immunohistochemical examination, on the basis of which the diagnosis is confirmed with the establishment of the degree of malignant formation and the depth of its penetration into tissues.

What does an oncologist / gynecologist do?

The oncologist-gynecologist reveals precancerous and cancerous conditions of the following organs - the vagina, the ovaries, the uterus, and the vulva. The risk group consists of women with an anamnesis of oncology in the immediate family, as well as patients with frequently recurring infectious and inflammatory diseases.

Most cancerous pathologies are asymptomatic, in the case of a chronic inflammatory process, the transformation of cells into malignant cells is possible, all this complicates the detection of oncology at an early stage and explains the later treatment of the patients themselves.

The main task of the doctor is to detect cancer in the initial stage, when long and time-consuming treatment is not required, and the percentage of recovery and return to normal life is quite high. With this aim, regular screening of women from risk groups, preventive examinations, special anticancer vaccination of the cervix is practiced.

What diseases are treated by an oncologist / gynecologist?

The oncologist-gynecologist differentiates the tumor processes into benign and malignant, flowing inside or outside the sexual sphere of a woman. In addition to diagnosis, the doctor is responsible for preventive measures that prevent cancerous conditions of the cervix and the uterus, ovaries, vulva, and vagina. An important task of the oncogynecologist is to recognize the malignant process at an early stage, which helps to save the patient's life. Unfortunately, medical statistics are such that every fifth case of a woman's reproductive cancer lesion leads to a fatal outcome.

Under the supervision of a specialist, precancerous and cancerous conditions of the ovaries, uterus (body and neck), pathological processes in the mammary glands (mastopathy), as well as dysplasia / erosion of the cervix. Under the supervision of an oncogynecologist, women with the following diseases fall: 

  • myoma of the uterus; 
  • chronic infections of an inflammatory nature; 
  • endometriosis and chronic endometritis; 
  • cystic ovary formations; 
  • dysfunctions of the hormonal background in the failure of the monthly cycle; 
  • condylomata, papillomas, polyps.

Advices of a doctor oncologist-gynecologist

The biggest problem of modern oncology is the late treatment of patients. Very often an appointment with a doctor comes already in the III-IV stage of the disease. Doctors associate this, first of all, with inattention of women to their health and the absence of symptoms at the initial stages of the cancer process. According to this advice of a doctor oncologist-gynecologist apply to the need for routine examinations, at least 2 times a year, provided there are no complaints and at least 1 time in half a year if they detect alarm signals. Patients with a genetic predisposition to cancer should undergo cytology and colposcopy.

An important place is given to healthy eating, moderate physical activity, not neglecting the rules of intimate hygiene, the absence of bad habits, stressful conditions and the presence of family harmony.

The oncologist-gynecologist, in addition to promoting healthy lifestyles, conducts, together with the obstetrician-gynecologist, an introductory work among adolescents on the subject: 

  • unwanted / early pregnancy; 
  • methods of contraception; 
  • preservation of sexual health; 
  • prevention of negative factors affecting the development of malignant neoplastic processes of the cervix.

To provocateurs of dysplasia and oncology cervical uterus is:

  • tobacco and alcohol abuse; 
  • early entry into intimate relationships; 
  • frequent change of sexual partner; 
  • early onset of the first pregnancy; 
  • infectious-inflammatory processes and venereal diseases; 
  • interruption of pregnancy at a young age; 
  • a long period of use of oral contraceptives.

The doctor oncologist-gynecologist advises not to engage in self-treatment of such common problems as "thrush" (vaginal candidiasis) and erosion of the cervix. In the case of "thrush" it is necessary to treat the whole body, and the therapy itself takes 3 to 6 months. With regard to erosion, in the advanced stage, this pathology refers to a precancerous or cancerous condition.

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Medical expert editor

Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich

Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"

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