Gastropathy is the common name for various stomach diseases, in Greek it means stomach pain, suffering. They often confuse gastritis and gastropathy, but in medicine these are different concepts. Under gastritis understand the changes in the gastric mucosa, confirmed by morphological studies, which are typical for inflammation. To make such a diagnosis, the material (biopsy) is taken by endoscopy and its histology is performed. Gastropathy involves damage to the epithelial cover, changes in blood vessels and capillaries, sometimes minor inflammation of the mucosa.
Epidemiology of the disease indicates that every second inhabitant of the world suffers from digestive disorders, and over the age of 50 there are more than 60%. If we consider that at first the disease often does not reveal itself, and therefore it is not fixed, then the picture is even larger.
Causes of the gastropathies
Gastropathy is considered a consequence of the influence of external (exogenous) or internal (endogenous) irritant factors. To exogenous carry:
use of strong alcohol and drugs;
By endogenous understand:
throwing bile from the duodenum;
taking medications, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
prolonged stagnant processes;
burns and injuries;
insufficient supply of blood to the walls of the stomach.
Risk factors include any of the causes that can cause gastropathy. This is an uncontrolled intake of medicines, and irregular meals containing coarse fatty and spicy food, nicotine and low-quality alcohol. Old age, female sex, rheumatoid arthritis, as well as ignoring health problems are a serious area of risk for the development of gastropathies.
The pathogenesis of gastropathies is a complete or partial change in the structure of the mucous membrane of the stomach, malfunctions of the cells of its glands, which leads to violations of its digestive and contractile activity. In fact, this chronic gastritis, which lasts a long time, was not treated or was treated incorrectly and led to pathological changes. There is no inflammatory process or it is insignificant.
Symptoms of the gastropathies
Gastropathy in the initial stages are asymptomatic. Often the first signs are overshadowed by symptoms that indicate other pathologies against which this disease develops. But after a while the disease will make itself felt by the severity in the stomach, its overcrowding, heartburn, eructation, nausea, sometimes vomiting, flatulence.
Gastropathy in children
According to the frequency of incidence, gastropathy in children ranks second after respiratory infections. Leader is acute gastropathy, which is characterized by a sudden appearance and rapid current. It can grow up even in infancy during transition to artificial feeding or from food allergens. Possible and such irritants as infectious massive invasions, medications, spoiled foods and milk mixtures. The disease manifests a general malaise, anxiety, pain in the stomach and navel, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. The acute stage can pass into the chronic, which is characterized by "hungry" pain, a feeling of raspiraniya and overflow of the stomach. The chronic stage can become a "companion" of the child for a long period of life.
The stages of the disease are determined by the nature of the course, the duration of the disease, the effectiveness of treatment, the state of the inner surface of the stomach. There are several classifications of gastropathies. One of them distinguishes acute (short-term) course of the disease and chronic (long-term), they are distinguished by the type of inflammatory infiltrations (seals). Another system involves such stages:
initial - characterized by a slight inflammation of the mucosa without disturbing its structure;
chronic - occurs with late diagnosis and lack of treatment, affects the secretion of gastric juice; leads to the appearance of erosion, ulcers and lesion of the secretory glands (diffuse);
atrophic - indicates the neglect of the disease; for it degeneration of the gastric walls, the replacement of individual parts with connective tissue, deterioration of general well-being are inherent;
hypertrophic - the heaviest, in which the walls of the stomach thicken and coarsen, and on the mucosa formed cysts and adenomas; the patient loses weight.
Acute gastropathy occurs with a short-term exposure to the stomach of a damaging agent (infection, concentrated acids, alkalis, alcohol), manifested by pain in the epigastric region, nausea, eructation, vomiting, diarrhea. Upon examination, the doctor ascertains a dry and white tongue, a swollen abdomen, painful sensations on palpation, and sometimes a fever. A blood test shows neurocilic leukocytosis.
Chronic gastropathy is a slowly developing disease, accompanied by gradual changes in the gastric mucosa in the form of lymphoplasmocytic infiltration. Over time, atrophy of epithelial cells occurs, the functions of the stomach are violated, which affects the secretion of pepsin and hydrochloric acid. Often chronic gastropathy occurs without any clinical manifestations, but during exacerbations it makes itself felt by nausea, eructation, relaxed stools, heartburn, pain. Clinic of chronic gastropathy with increased and decreased secretion of hydrochloric acid is different. The first is more susceptible to men of a young age, the second - people of the middle and elderly.
At the heart of gastropathies is the mutation of cells of internal epithelial layers in connective tissues. This degeneration is called dysplasia of the gland epithelium. There are several stages of gastropathies, depending on the degree of damage to this layer: weak, moderate and severe or severe. The first two stages in expression are similar to each other and they are united into one group, the tissues of the affected foci are monomorphic large cells of a cubic form with large light nuclei. They have a disorganizing effect on the functioning of healthy cells of the mucous layer of the epithelium.
Gastropathy 1 and 2 degrees
Gastropathy of the 1st degree corresponds to minor changes in the epithelium, a decrease in the secretion of gastric juice. Gastropathy of the 2nd degree is a deeper and more obvious pathological process, cell degeneration occurs faster than at the 1st degree. But these stages are reversible with timely therapy.
Under one name "gastropathy" lies a lot of chronic diseases of the stomach, which are not all sufficiently studied, so there are different classifications and they are conditional. Endoscopic classification of gastropathies is based on three consecutive stages: description, interpretation and final conclusion.
The description makes a visual assessment of the surface of the stomach, the movement and size of its walls, the color of the mucosa, the presence of lesions. Interpretation answers the questions indicated in the direction of the gastroendoscopy, taking into account the clinical diagnosis. For a final conclusion, a biopsy biopsy is taken.
Erimatous gastropathy is a reddening of the gastric mucosa and is detected by endoscopic examination. There are focal, embracing one or several separate areas of the stomach, and common, on the entire surface of the organ or on most of it. Focal gastropathy is asymptomatic, with a more extensive spread of it there are sensations characteristic of gastritis: the severity and pain in the epigastric region, the feeling of overflow of the stomach, eructation, general weakness, heartburn.
Erosive gastropathy is characterized by the appearance of mucosal lesions - erosions. They are subdivided into sharp, 1-2 mm in size, and chronic, from 3 to 7 mm, outwardly similar to pimples with a hollow in the middle. The main cause of erosive gastropathy is the aggressive influence of endogenous and exogenous factors: burns, injuries, drugs, reflux of bile, bacterial invasions. It can flow as asymptomatically, and make itself felt pain in the right upper quadrant, flatulence, and sometimes gastric bleeding.
Congestive gastropathy involves a violation of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. It is expressed by ulcers and erosions in the lower antral part of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine. Deterioration of the blood supply of the body comes, mainly from the negative effects of alcohol, nicotine, seeding Helicobacter pylori. This kind of gastropathy often accompanies the pathology of the liver, kidneys, stomach ulcers, burns, pancreatic tumors.
With atrophic gastritis, secretory gland cells degenerate, atrophy and lose their ability to perform their functions. Damaged cells under the influence of autoimmune reactions give birth to their own kind, pathological regeneration takes place and mucus is produced instead of gastric juice. This diagnosis is characterized by a decreased acidity of the stomach, which in itself is not the worst, it can be artificially enhanced. A more dangerous consequence is the emergence of neoplasms, including malignant ones. The term subatrophic gastropathy is considered obsolete, in modern clinical practice is almost not used. He also assumes the initial stage of atrophic gastropathy.
Antral gastropathy affects the antral part of the stomach, whose functions include grinding food to a size of 1.5-2mm and pushing it into the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter. At the location of the pylorus, mucus is released - an alkaline medium that neutralizes the action of hydrochloric acid. In addition, the endocrine gland cells of this department produce hormones gastrin, endorphins, serotonin. Violation of the work of this part of the stomach leads to a decrease in the rate of food movement through the digestive tract, resulting in stagnant phenomena in the stomach, fermentation. The person feels heaviness, pain syndrome. Elderly people are more often affected by this pathology, but it also occurs in young people. The lack of treatment can lead to the formation of an ulcer, which in this place of localization is quite easy to treat.
Catarrhal implies the simplest form of gastropathy, in which inflammation only spreads to the upper layers of the gastric mucosa. It can be accompanied by both increased secretion of gastric juice, and its insufficiency, and the symptoms characteristic of these conditions. The causes of pathology are different, including a violation of diet, food poisoning, chemical, traumatic factors.
For hyperplastic gastropathy is characterized by an excessive increase in the number of cells of the secretory glands, due to which there is a proliferation of tissue and the formation of folds and outgrowths inside the stomach. This form of gastritis is more likely to affect people of young and old age, mostly men. To hyperplastic gastritis include such diseases:
Menetries syndrome, which is characterized by the appearance of deep immovable folds and the possibility of their spread to the intestinal wall;
Zollinger-Ellison disease, in which there is excessive secretion of gastrin, leading to the formation of erosions, ulcers and gastrin;
The term "diffuse" refers to the prevalence of pathological processes on the entire body of the stomach or most of it. Diffuse gastropathy manifests itself in acute form, and in chronic. The cause of its appearance can be any of the above described. Its superficial form - the easiest, not having a symptomatology, is found, as a rule, accidentally during gastropathy. Prolonged chronic leakage causes structural changes in the mucosa and manifests itself as characteristic of gastritis symptoms.
Reflux gastropathy is a variety of damage to the stomach as a result of throwing into it the contents of the duodenum. Most often, this affects his antral department. Bile acids and their salts, pancreatic enzymes and other components, getting through a poorly closed pylorus into the stomach, negatively affect its mucous, causing inflammation, erosion, ulcers. There is such a gastropathy with pains without clear localization, white coating on the tongue, eructation.
Hyperemic gastropathy is caused by an increase in blood flow to the gastric mucosa, while examining gastroendoscopy states redness and bruising, swelling. Focal, sometimes in some small areas, and common, can cover various parts of the body.
Hypertrophic gastropathy is a deep deformation of the walls of the stomach, which affects not only the mucous layer, but also the muscular. In other words, this is the formation of benign tumors. Depending on the type of deformation, polypous gastropathy, warty, granular or cystic and Menetries disease are distinguished. Neoplasms are single and multiple, focal and diffuse. They are more common in males because of their inherent intemperance in drinking alcohol, smoking, fatty and spicy food.
Portal gastropathy is a variety of lesions of mucous and submucosal layers of the stomach caused by vasodilation due to portal hypertension. In the portal vein system, pressure increases and this leads to an expansion of the capillaries, arterioles and veins of the stomach walls and their increased blood filling. There are several degrees of severity of the disease:
light (on the surface of the mucosa there is a mosaic pattern formed by blood vessels);
average (appearance of red solid fragments);
Heavy (fusion of pinpoint hemorrhages in a black-and-brown pattern).
Inflammatory process with portal gastropathy is not observed. Minor gastric bleeding is possible, which in themselves do not lead to irreparable consequences.
Associated gastropathy refers to the pathology caused by the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Currently, the intake of NSAIDs is becoming widespread. Is an effective tool in the treatment of the musculoskeletal system, migraines, fevers, for the prevention of vascular diseases, in dentistry and oncology for pain relief. But in addition to a specific focus of the systemic use of drugs can damage the mucous membrane of the digestive organs, cause ulcers and erosion, gastric bleeding, obstruction. Often against the background of the painful sensations of the underlying disease, NSAID-associated gastropathies do not give a significant symptomatology, therefore it is detected already at the stage of complications.
Exudative gastropathy has another name - the disease Menetries, after the name of a French doctor who described it in 1888. This is a fairly rare disease, consisting in the formation of deep folds on the wall of the stomach, whose height can sometimes reach 3-3.5 cm. In this case, there is a decrease in the main and lining cells, and the number of cells producing mucus increases. The causes of the pathology are not well understood. It is believed that the disease can provoke a long-term effect on the mucosa of alcohol, heavy metals, heredity, metabolic disorders. Sometimes exudative gastropathy is considered a benign tumor. Suppose this diagnosis can aching pain in the stomach, arising after eating, loss of appetite, often weight loss, sometimes unpronounced bleeding.
Granular gastropathy got its name due to a visual assessment, which is given by gastroenterologists during endoscopic examination. The walls of the stomach in this pathology are covered with small granular formations (from a few millimeters to a centimeter). The disease develops mainly in men after 40 years. At first, it does not manifest itself in any way, in the future it leads to swelling of the mucous membrane and disturbance of protein metabolism.
Lymphoid or lymphocytic gastropathy is considered a rare disease that occurs against a background of chronic chronic gastritis. It is characterized by the accumulation in the site of damage to the epithelium of the gastric mucosa or duodenum of lymphocytes in the form of follicles. If the chronic course of the disease is caused by the Helicobacter pylori bacterium, there is a sharp increase in the cells of the follicular layer - lymphofollicular hyperplasia, in which the folds of the lymphoid tissue become large. Doctors believe that this is the body's response to the multiplication of bacteria. In addition to biopsy with this diagnosis, fluoroscopy is performed to determine the extent of tissue proliferation and the risk of degeneration into malignant neoplasms.
Jet gastropathy is also called chemical. The most common cause of this disease is reflux of bile and long-term intake of NSAIDs. The effect of these factors on the state of the gastric mucosa has already been described above. It was also observed that it develops in patients who underwent surgery on the stomach.
Ulcerous gastropathy refers to the acute form of the disease. A few hours after the damaging agent enters the interior, the inflammatory process of the mucosa rapidly develops. After some time, the person experiences symptoms characteristic of poisoning: nausea, vomiting, a feeling of raspiraniya in the stomach. Often there is blood in the vomit, and after emptying the stomach, vomiting begins with bile. With such phenomena it is necessary to urgently apply to a medical institution in time to stop the pathological process and avoid serious complications.
Papular gastropathy is characterized by the formation of single papules in different parts of the stomach or multiple, concentrated in one. In medical terminology, this name is eroded. It does not affect the deep layers of the mucosa, and when healing does not leave a muscle scar.
Ureemic gastropathy occurs in patients with chronic renal insufficiency, which affects many human organs, but most often the gastrointestinal tract. It acts as a compensatory mechanism in nitrogenous and electrolyte metabolism when these renal functions are impaired. Due to the cleavage of urea in the stomach, ammonia is formed, which provokes an increased secretion of hydrochloric acid. The consequences of this process is inflammation of the mucosa, the formation of erosion and ulcers, bleeding. Another option is a decrease in acidity due to a loss of sensitivity of the lining cells to gastrin, the development of mucosal atrophy, which is even more dangerous for health.
The word "induce" is interpreted as "influencing". The medical term "induced gastropathy" means the occurrence of a disease under the influence of something. Most often this refers to the involvement of medications at the onset of the pathogenic process. In the special literature there are descriptions of NSAID-induced, aspirin-induced gastropathies, which we have already considered.
Mixed gastropathy occurs as a result of the development of its various forms. Most often, the patient is found to have erosive, superficial, hemorrhagic and hypertrophic gastropathies. As a rule, superficial, which does not affect the deep layers of the mucous membrane, with its chronic course can be aggravated by the formation of erosions and a violation of microcirculation of blood in the vessels and capillaries of the stomach and go into a severe hypertrophic stage.
Complications and consequences
With untimely detection and treatment of gastropathies, the pathological process can go to the stage of complications involving digestive disorders due to insufficient production of gastric juice and pepsin, stagnant phenomena in the antrum of the stomach caused by motor disorders. Consequences may be the development of B12-deficiency anemia due to a violation of gastric absorption of nutrients, the formation of tumors, including malignant, gastric bleeding.
Diagnostics of the gastropathies
Diagnosis of gastropathy is performed by a gastroenterologist. Clarifying the history of the disease and the clinical picture may not be sufficient to make a diagnosis. There is a whole complex of measures that allow to give an accurate picture of pathologies. This is the laboratory evaluation of the material being studied, and the use of instrumental diagnostics, and differentiation with other diseases.
If suspected of gastropathy, a histological analysis is performed by examining the tissue sample (biopsy) taken. To do this, from the areas of visible damage and healthy adjacent to them, the material is taken separately. Such an analysis allows us to determine some types of chronic gastritis or to establish the nature of tumors. To determine the condition of the mucosa, two types of test are used: on acidity (intragastric pH meter) and on the ratio of pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II in plasma - proenzymes produced by the fundal glands of the stomach. An analysis is also carried out for the presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria, possibly biochemical genetic research. The standard procedure is a general and biochemical blood test, urine analysis (to determine the level of uropepsin) and feces (co-program).
When carrying out instrumental diagnostics resort to conventional and ultrasonic endoscopy. The advantage of the latter is a unique opportunity not only visually through the optical device from the inside to see the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, but also thanks to a special sensor to get an image on the screen. For more accurate diagnosis, appoint and fluoroscopy.
Based on many varieties of gastropathies and the causes of their spawning, it is important to conduct a differentiated diagnosis, t. Each of them has its own treatment features. In addition, chronic gastropathy with increased acidity is symptomatic similar to peptic ulcer, but with less severe pain, not seasonal and decreasing with diet. It is also necessary to differentiate the disease with chronic cholecystitis, pancreatitis, malignant tumor.
Treatment of the gastropathies
Treatment of gastropathies depends on many factors: the nature of the pathology, the causes of its occurrence, the type (acute or chronic). The tactic of treatment of acute gastritis is the elimination of a damaging factor - gastric lavage, using a probe or copious eating, followed by vomiting, sorbent intake, gastro-cytoprotective drugs, enzymes, antispasmodics with severe pain. Treatment of chronic gastritis does not have such a definite protocol, because it is different for different acidities of the stomach. So, with hyperacid gastropathy, antisecretory therapy is performed, inhibitors of the proton pump are used; for the treatment of atrophic gastropathies, they are not required, but they need drugs that normalize the motility of the stomach, iron preparations, vitamin remedies. Antibacterial drugs are used in case of detection of Helicobacter pylori. Common to all types of gastropathy is the use of enzyme preparations, gastro-cytoprotectors, analgesics, as well as dietotherapy and hydrotherapy.
More details on drugs used to treat gastropathies. The composition of antisecretory therapy includes such drugs: ranitidine, famotidine, quamate, proton pump inhibitors - esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole.
Ranitidine - selectively blocks histamine H2 receptors, preventing the production of hydrochloric acid. Available in tablets and injectable solutions. It is prescribed in a dose of 0.15 g in the morning and in the evening or 0.3 g at bedtime for 1 or 2 months. Side effects are rare, but can be expressed in headaches, dizziness, fatigue, rashes on the skin. Contraindicated in pregnant, lactating women and children under 14 years of age.
Esomeprazole - capsules, doses are prescribed individually, on average, it is 0.02 g once a day before breakfast, if necessary, can be increased to 0.04 g. The course of treatment 2-4 weeks. Side effects are manifested in drowsiness, numbness of limbs, diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomatitis. Do not administer to pregnant or lactating mothers.
Anti-Helicobacter therapy includes such drugs: ornidazole, amoxicillin, metronidazole; preparations of bismuth: vikalin, de-nol. To gastrocytoprotectors, protecting the gastric mucosa from aggressive influences, include maalox, almagel, phosphalugel, gastromax.
Gastromax - are available in the form of chewable tablets. Applied from the age of 12 years. Daily rate - 2 pcs. With heartburn or an hour after eating. Response to the drug may be nausea, constipation, allergies. Contraindicated in pregnancy, hypersensitivity, renal failure.
In acute gastropathy, sorbents are used: atoxyl, enterosgel, activated charcoal.
Atoxil - is an enterosorbent of 4 generations, is produced in powder, is sold in vials. Before use, the package is opened and topped up with water to 250 ml, shaken until completely dissolved. The drug is sometimes accompanied by constipation. During breastfeeding, before the age of one year and during pregnancy, it is better to refrain from treatment with a remedy. Negative effects on this contingent have not been investigated.
Enzyme preparations that help digest food, such as: Creon, Mezim, Festal. To improve the motor motility of the stomach include: motilium, cerucal.
Cerucal - tablets, normalizing the tone of the digestive system. For half an hour before eating, you need to drink 10 mg, during the day 3-4 times. Children dose is calculated from the calculation of 0.1 mg per kilogram of weight. The course of treatment can last from one to six months. Possible side effects from the CNS (tinnitus, anxiety, depression), cardiovascular (increased pressure, tachycardia), endocrine (malfunctions of the menstrual cycle), as well as allergies and diarrhea. Contraindicated in intestinal obstruction, gastric bleeding, epilepsy, special sensitivity to the components of the drug.
To relieve the pain that occurs with gastropathies, and to remove spasms, appoint no-shpu, riabal.
In diseases of the digestive organs due to poor absorption of the walls of the stomach necessary for the body of nutrients, there is a shortage of vitamins and trace elements. In order not to provoke hypovitaminosis, which can lead to other malfunctions, you need to saturate your diet with products containing the necessary components, or take the pharmacy vitamins. Their composition depends on the type of gastropathy, the acidity of the stomach, so the appointment can only be done by a doctor. When hypocidal gastritis is prescribed vitamin E, it is present in fats, milk, vegetable oil. For reduced acidity, vitamins C (found in dog-rose, citrus, cabbage) and PP (in meat, fish) are suitable. There may be a deficiency of vitamin B6, leading to a violation of metabolism, nervous disorders. In the body gets with grain bread, beans, peas. The lack of B12 causes anemia, it works well with folic acid, is in products of animal origin. Vitamin A prevents the infection through the damaged walls of the mucosa, its source is vegetable and butter, cereals.
Physiotherapeutic treatment of gastropathies is indicated after relieving the exacerbation. The methods aimed at eliminating the disease include:
correction of secretion (magnetotherapy, mineral water);
immunomodulating (magnetotherapy of the umbilical region and thymus gland).
Many recipes for alternative treatments contain the use of apiproducts, either alone or in combination with other medicinal ingredients. So, you can dissolve a teaspoon of honey in a glass of water at room temperature, drink before meals for 20-30 minutes. Just make and juice of aloe with honey: the cut leaves of the plant are left in the fridge for 10-12 days, after which the juice is crushed and squeezed out. Mixing in equal proportions with honey, they drink a tablespoon before eating. Propolis has a good reputation in the treatment of gastropathies, 30-40 drops of pharmacy tincture on an empty stomach has a healing and antiseptic effect. You can take Perga (single dose - a teaspoon of 50 g of water, insist a few hours).
Sea buckthorn possesses truly miraculous properties. Oil from it has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, regenerating effect, due to which it is widely used in gastroenterology.
In nature, there are many herbs and plants that can help with various disorders and malfunctions of the digestive tract. It is chamomile, St. John's wort, calendula, sage, immortelle, thyme, string, plantain, flax seed, oak bark and many others. You can brew them as tea and drink before meals, or you can buy special gastric fees at the pharmacy, taking into account your diagnosis and acidity, and prepare according to the recommendations on the package. Apply after an acute period and a bath with the infusions of the above herbs, as well as compresses on the epigastric region.
Homeopathic treatment is carried out in conjunction with the main and only the appointment of a homeopath physician, who takes into account not only the diagnosis, but also the character, the constitution of the person and other individual characteristics. Here are some of them:
Amarin - oral drops, which contain substances of plant origin; are used for gastrointestinal disorders caused by a violation of secretion and gastric motility, spasms, pain syndrome. Recommended for use from 11 years, 10-20 drops diluted in a small amount of liquid, drink three times a day. Contraindicated in gastric and duodenal ulcers, high arterial pressure. A possible side effect is the manifestation of allergy;
gastricumel - tablets, contain substances of vegetable and mineral origin, activate the defenses of the body and normalize the dysfunction of the stomach. Children under 12 years are recommended to grind 1 tablet and dissolve it in two tablespoons of water. The resulting solution is given at the age of 2-6 years for two teaspoons, from 6 to 12 - 3 tablespoons. After 12 years and adults - a tablet under the tongue until complete resorption. The drug is taken for 20min. Before meals or an hour after. Side effects and contraindications have not been investigated, therefore, are not known;
gepar compositum is a solution for injections, a complex drug prescribed for violations of the digestive organs. It is administered once every 1-3 days subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously. Data on adverse effects, no contraindications;
potassium floratum - tablets, are applicable for all age-old categories, differ in dose and frequency, depending on the age and nature of the course of gastropathy - acute or chronic. Children up to one year are recommended 1 tablet, dissolved in water 1-2 times a day, adults the same, but the frequency of reception can reach up to 6 times. With increased sensitivity to the components of the remedy, allergic reactions are possible.
All these drugs can be prescribed to pregnant women only with the permission of the doctor, tk. They were not subjected to clinical trials in this category of patients.
To surgical treatment resorted to in the event that it is not possible to stop pain or stop gastric bleeding. Most often this is a laparoscopic method, carried out with the help of special tools and not requiring deep trauma to the tissues of the organ.
Diet with gastropathy
Diet in gastropathy occupies an important place in the treatment of the disease along with therapeutic methods. Specific diets have been identified that have their numbers (Nos. 1, 1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4) and are recommended for nutrition during exacerbations and chronic course of the pathological process. They are based on the following "whales":
fractionality of food, its regularity, moderation of portions;
good quality of products and the exclusion of acute, fatty foods, fresh bakery products;
technology of food processing, including cooking or steaming;
Exclusion of cold dishes below 15 ° C and hot above 60 ° C;
avoidance of acidic vegetables and fruits with increased acidity of the stomach;
the use of products that increase gastric motility with reduced secretion.
The menu should include a variety of cereals, mashed soups, low-fat meat, the same milk products, cheeses, cauliflower, zucchini, pumpkin, potatoes, honey, fruits with acidity, dried bread, etc.
Knowing the causes of gastropathies, it is important to build preventive measures so as to protect the body from the harmful effects of external and internal factors. First of all, it is necessary to monitor the freshness of products, avoid sharp, hot, fatty dishes. Do not overload the stomach with a large amount of food, observe moderation in alcohol consumption, in smoking. If possible, do not abuse medicines, do not resort to self-medication. When working with chemicals, it is necessary to use protective equipment. Antisecretory drugs are an effective method in the prevention of hyperacid gastropathies. A healthy lifestyle, playing sports will help to avoid stress and normalize the psycho-emotional state, the imbalance of which often leads to exacerbations.
With the timely treatment of gastropathies with increased acidity, the disease does not pose a threat to life. The prognosis is unfavorable with the development of pernicious anemia, the degeneration of benign cells into malignant cells in case of a decreased secretion of gastric juice.
Regular fairly strong and prolonged pains in the epigastric region, as well as a feeling of "stone in the stomach" after each meal can indicate that it's time to visit the gastroenterologist for developing gastritis, which can occur...
Almost every second inhabitant of the world suffers from diseases of the stomach, among which gastritis is in the first place. The diagnosis of "gastritis" has become so widespread recently that you will not surprise anyone, and even more...
Share on social networks
You are reporting a typo in the following text:
Simply click the "Send typo report" button to complete the report. You can also include a comment.