Diagnosis is a specialist who establishes a diagnosis. The specialization is quite young, she is only a few dozen years old, but doctors have been diagnosing doctors since a long time, based on the simplest methods of research: listening, probing, rapping, etc.
Everyone is a usual therapist and is a diagnostician, but over time, new research methods have appeared in medicine - X-rays, MRI, ultrasound, electrocardiography, etc. With the advent of new diagnostic devices, a need arose to identify a new narrow specialty - a diagnostician who, with the help of certain devices, is able to highlight important information and the state and work of internal organs and to make the correct diagnosis. Each doctor should diagnose before prescribing treatment, however, there are situations when it is difficult to determine the diagnosis and then an additional examination is required, which is carried out by a doctor-diagnostician.
Who is this diagnostician?
The diagnostic is engaged in research of all internal organs and systems of a person and on the basis of the received data defines the correct diagnosis to the patient. Based on the diagnosis and further treatment is provided by the attending physician of a narrow specialization. The distribution of responsibilities in this way makes it possible to spend more efficiently the time of medical workers and to conduct effective and timely treatment.
Currently, the diagnostician is already a separate specialty in medicine, although the definition of a diagnosis before starting treatment is the responsibility of each specialist. As a rule, the therapist (or other specialist) determines the diagnosis of the general disease, but in case of difficulties or suspicions, the patient is sent for additional examination to the diagnostic doctor.
When should I go to the diagnostician?
Currently, the diagnostic capabilities are quite diverse. Today you can do not only the x-ray and biochemical composition of blood or urine, but also carry out a diagnostic operation, the purpose of which is to examine internal organs with the help of special devices. Often such operations are conducted by the average medical personnel, and the results of the study are sent to the specialist doctor, who makes the appropriate conclusions.
It is required to consult a specialist such as a diagnostician, can in conditions when the attending physician finds it difficult to diagnose and recommends an additional examination. You can also contact the diagnostician yourself, ie. Without referral from another specialist, if you feel weakness, general poor health, pain in certain organs or parts of the body. Also, a complete diagnostic examination can be done for preventive purposes in order to prevent the development of serious diseases or to reveal any pathologies in the early stages (especially if the factors that are at their disposal are harmful working conditions, heredity, etc.).
What tests should I take when I contact a diagnostician?
The doctor - diagnostician pays much attention to the analyzes, which provide him invaluable help in the work, since they can tell a lot about the work and the state of the organism.
In modern medicine, various (physical, microscopic, chemical) studies of urine, feces, and blood in the laboratory are widespread. Other materials obtained by puncture or biopsy from different organs and tissues (liver, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, etc.)
Of great importance for the diagnostician are methods of research with the use of serum, which help to find various pathogens.
In diseases of the respiratory tract, as a rule, sputum is taken for analysis to detect infections or malignant tumors. The study of this fluid is the most effective method to determine the presence of bacteria in the body.
In the study of blood, in addition to the total number of platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes, the amount of each type of leukocytes, hemoglobin and the form of erythrocytes is determined.
There are a large number of blood tests, each of which is necessary to determine the state of a particular organ (system). For example, the fraction of creatine phosphokinase appears in the blood, if the activity of the heart muscle is disrupted, if the level of the fraction is increased, it can talk about myocardial infarction.
The hematoxime helps identify various types of anemia. This is a special device that measures the level of erythrocytes. In diagnostics, an important analysis is the study of blood for the presence of antibodies, which allows you to make an accurate diagnosis of infections.
Usually, blood is taken from the vein or from the finger, but other methods are often required, for example, cardiac catheterization, when a special catheter is inserted through the vein (artery) into the organ and advances into the heart chambers or the main vessels. Such an analysis allows us to determine the oxygen and carbon dioxide content of the blood.
What diagnostic methods does diagnostician use?
The doctor - diagnostician, first of all, conducts a questioning of the patient, which helps him to determine for himself the general picture of a person's condition. When interviewed, the doctor identifies two types of symptoms: objective (temperature, pulse, blood pressure, test results and additional examinations) and subjective (sensations that a person experiences). Usually, the doctor will know when the first symptoms of the disease appeared, how often they repeat, whether the relatives suffer from the same diseases or symptoms. Standard questions of the diagnostician include questions about nutrition, smoking, alcohol, lifestyle, work place, etc. All this is important enough for a specialist to form a more complete picture of the patient.
When examining a small child, the doctor starts from the information received from his parents. Also, the doctor may ask how the pregnancy and childbirth proceeded, were there any complications, at what age did the child take the first steps and began to speak. If parents try to explain the symptoms or have their own opinion about a possible disease, this only complicates the work of the diagnostician. Small children are not able to correctly explain their condition, as it is difficult for them to explain exactly where and how it hurts, what is felt while doing this, etc. In this case, parents should respond as accurately and fully as possible to the questions posed by the expert in order to contribute to the formulation of an accurate diagnosis.
After the questioning, the doctor examines the patient. First of all, an external examination (skin, tongue, eyes, throat, tonsils, temperature measurement, etc.) is performed. Also, the specialist measures weight, height (this is especially important for young children, because it allows you to estimate the increase in weight and height of the baby).
Complicated cases can have a nonspecific course or confusion of symptoms. To identify the disease use:
computer tomography, which allows you to get an image of internal organs. This method is used to study almost all organs and parts of the body (pancreas, adrenal glands, thorax, peritoneum, limbs, heart, etc.). This method of diagnosis can identify various diseases: patency of the bile ducts, stones in the organs, joints, tumors, cysts, abscesses, pelvic organs, lungs, digestive system, infectious diseases, cancer;
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is the safest method of diagnosis for many people, since X-rays (X-rays) are not used here. MRI allows you to better view specific structures of the spinal cord and brain. Most often this method is used to detect tumors of the nervous system, for the presence and prevalence of oncology. With the help of MRI can detect quite a lot of diseases: tumor, dystrophic, inflammatory, defeat of the heart and blood vessels, lymph nodes, peritoneum, chest, parasitic diseases, etc .;
endoscopy, which allows you to view the hollow organs with a special device - an endoscope, usually this method is used for mild symptoms. The device allows you to see the body from the inside and is used not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for the treatment of many diseases. With the help of this method, it is possible to recognize in the early stages of many diseases, in particular cancer of many organs (stomach, lungs, bladder, etc.). Usually, endoscopy is combined with biopsy (taking a piece of tissue for further laboratory testing), therapeutic procedures (administration of drugs), sounding;
Ultrasound (ultrasound) is a widely used method of modern diagnostics. Ultrasound has no contraindications, it can be performed several times throughout the treatment, except for this, if the need arises, the study can be performed several times a day. With obesity, flatulence, with available postoperative scars, the method may not be sufficiently informative and difficult to achieve. This method allows you to diagnose diseases of the organs of the peritoneum, small pelvis, kidney, thyroid, breast, vessels and heart;
mammography, which allows you to identify breast diseases in women in the early stages. This method uses x-ray radiation in low doses. In medicine, the real achievement was the emergence of a computer system for detecting pathological processes in the mammary glands and digital mammography, which are more informative for the specialist.
What does diagnostician do?
Diagnosis is engaged in the study of the body in order to establish an accurate diagnosis. To do this, the specialist uses a variety of diagnostic tools. To get an idea of what is happening in the human body, the doctor uses the acquired knowledge, experience and medical tools. Also, the doctor before the diagnosis conducts a survey, a visual examination of the patient to determine the clinical signs of the disease and determine in which particular organs pathological processes are possible, and what method of diagnosis is needed in each specific case.
The doctor's duties include not only diagnosing the patient. Usually, a specialist assesses the severity of the disease, makes predictions about the further development of the disease, suggests effective treatment. If the disease occurs in one organ, then a good specialist simply needs a simple examination to give the patient an accurate diagnosis, but it happens that the disease affects several organs or systems, then the doctor prescribes a more detailed comprehensive examination to establish the diagnosis.
What diseases treat diagnostician?
The main duty of the doctor - a diagnostician - is the diagnosis of the patient. Usually, further treatment is appointed by a specialized specialist, he also controls the process of recovery. A good specialist can not only make an accurate diagnosis, but also prescribe an effective treatment for the disease. As a rule, the diagnostician is sent when there are difficulties with the diagnosis.
The diagnostic can see the picture of the disease as a whole, assess the condition of internal organs
Diagnosis in its usual practice does not deal with the treatment of any disease. Such an expert conducts a diagnosis of the human body to determine the causes of his poor health (when other narrow specialists were powerless in the diagnosis).
Each practitioner is a diagnostician, since before prescribing treatment, it is necessary to determine the cause of the disease, i.e. To diagnose. Each specialist diagnoses the disease in his area (ENT - respiratory disease, therapist - internal diseases, the surgeon - diseases of organs and injuries). If there are difficulties in diagnosing a person, a person goes to an additional examination - X-ray, electrocardiogram, ultrasound, MRI, etc. The doctor - diagnostician studies the tests, interrogates the patient, conducts an examination, etc., then makes the appropriate conclusions and sends for treatment to a specialist.
Doctor's advice of a diagnostician
As well as all other doctors, diagnostician, recommends to adhere to a healthy lifestyle: do not abuse alcohol, quit smoking, lead an active lifestyle and eat right.
It is recommended that if there are any symptoms (pain, dizziness, deterioration of well-being, etc.), do not delay contacting a specialist, since the disease, detected at an early stage, is in most cases completely cured.
Diagnostics is a specialist who studies the body and reveals diseases. With the help of a variety of diagnostic methods, the specialist determines the cause of the disease, makes a diagnosis and then directs it for treatment to a narrow specialist. If there is a need, the doctor can independently prescribe the treatment, advise the preventive methods, make predictions about the course of the disease, etc.
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Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Medicine does not trample on the spot, but it keeps pace with the times. There is a high probability that soon some medical professions will be replaced by gadgets that will be able to diagnose diseases.