The main causes of orchitis in men are:
- Infectious infections. Infection can penetrate into the testicle from nearby or distant foci by a hematogenous route. The appearance of orchitis is possible against the background of such diseases:
- Brucellosis - infection occurs from animals and proceeds with multiple lesions of various organs and systems, including sex.
- Varicella - acute infectious pathology with high infectiousness. It flows with the formation of a bubble rash on the skin.
- Typhoid fever is an acute intestinal anthropo- nous infection. Causes damage to the lymphatic system of the lower part of the small intestine. It flows with fever, rashes on the skin and general intoxication of the body.
- Vesiculitis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation of the seminal vesicles.
- Gonorrhea is a disease from the STD group. Characterized by the defeat of gonococcal infections of the mucous membranes of the urogenital organs.
- Prostatitis infectious - inflammation of the prostate caused by infectious factors.
- Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra. It arises because of the action of various viruses and bacteria.
- Epididymitis is an inflammatory lesion of the epididymis. It flows with swelling and flushing of the scrotum.
Orchitis may act as a complication of influenza, ARVI, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and also occur with a weakened immune system.
- Traumatic and post-traumatic factors. A painful condition develops with direct mechanical action on the tissues of the organ:
- Direct trauma to the testicle.
- Complications of surgery.
- Catheterization of the bladder.
- Buzhirovanie urethras and other medical manipulations.
- Stagnant phenomena in the genital and pelvic region. The disease develops as a result of blood circulation disorders or outflow of seminal fluid.
- A sedentary, sedentary lifestyle.
- Frequent interrupted sexual intercourse.
- Sexual excesses or abstinence.
Especially dangerous are stagnant phenomena in combination with pathogenic microflora, that is, secondary infections.
Orchite at the steamers
An acute infectious disease caused by paramyxovirus and characterized by non-parasitic lesions of glandular organs (pancreas, testes, salivary glands) and central nervous system is parotitis (mumps). One of its complications is mumps orchitis.
Inflammatory lesion of testicles develops due to the fact that the mumps virus by the hematogenous way penetrates into the organ. Disease-causing microorganisms affect the blood vessels, which in some cases leads to thrombosis. The edema of the interstitial tissue causes compression of the testicle parenchyma, damaging the epithelioospermatogenous layer.
Orchitis with parotitis develops on the 4-9th day of the disease on the background of a decrease in swelling of the parotid gland. In rare cases, the defeat of the testicle precedes mumps, manifesting simultaneously with it or for 3 weeks of illness.
Symptoms of complications:
- Deterioration of general well-being.
- Intoxication of the organism.
- Increased body temperature.
- A sharp increase in the testicles in size.
- The skin of the scrotum is stretched, hyperemic.
- Palpation of the testicles is painful.
- Pain radiates to the perineum and waist.
Parotite orchitis can occur in acute and chronic form. The diagnosis of the disease is based on an anamnesis of epidpidotitis infection and the presence of clinical symptoms. It is mandatory to differentiate with other acute diseases of the testicles.
For treatment, antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretic agents are used. In some cases, corticosteroids are prescribed that have an anti-inflammatory effect, eliminating edema of the testicle parenchyma. Corticosteroids prevent auto-allergic processes in the body, which can cause chronic disease. Local treatment with ointments, compresses, suppositories is also prescribed.
Orchitis after surgery
Postoperative inflammation of the urogenital system may be complicated by the development of orchitis. This disease occurs as a direct mechanical effect on the tissues of the organ, and with various medical manipulations or diagnostic procedures:
- Catheterization of the bladder.
- Buzhirovanie urethra.
Danger of the disease in its rapid progression. Against the backdrop of recent surgery, the symptoms of orchitis may be smeared, which complicates the diagnostic process. Treatment consists of a course of drug therapy, physiotherapy, and in particularly severe cases and surgical intervention.
Traumatic and posttraumatic orchitis
A direct effect on the inguinal and scrotal area causes traumatic damage to the soft tissues of the scrotum and its organs. In most cases, such injuries are combined with a violation of the functions of the penis.
- Trauma is possible when dealing with certain sports, in everyday situations, accidents, sexual contacts, animal bites.
- A painful condition can be caused by frequent shaking and vibration, thermal factors (steam burn or boiling water, hypothermia).
Injuries of the scrotum organs are closed and open, but all of them can cause the development of posttraumatic orchitis. Clinical symptoms depend on the severity of circulatory disorders in the scrotum. In mild cases, there is a small swelling and hyperemia. Such symptoms do not cause anxiety and pass independently.
In severe violations of blood and lymph circulation, there is a strong puffiness and hyperemia, which indicate the development of orchitis. Against this background, acute painful sensations appear, replaced by a sense of heaviness and overexertion. The peculiarity of traumatic orchitis is that it has a tendency to abscess. Also characterized by persistent local inflammatory reactions.
For diagnosis, ultrasound of the scrotum organs and ultrasound of its vessels are used. Treatment can be both medically and operationally. If the damage is uncomplicated, then symptomatic therapy with the administration of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs is indicated. Local cooling of injured tissues and immobilization with the aid of a dressing or suspensions are also recommended. After 3-5 days, physiotherapy procedures can be prescribed to facilitate resorption of subcutaneous hemorrhages.
Orchitis after pyelonephritis
One of the factors contributing to the development of orchitis is pyelonephritis. The disease is of bacterial origin. The pathogenic microflora penetrates into the renal tubule system and triggers purulent-inflammatory processes that lead to damage to the kidneys and urogenital system.
The hematogenous pathway of infection leads to testicular damage. Symptomatics of orchitis on the background of pyelonephritis is complicated by a primary disease. The patient is faced with a violation of urination and acute pain in the scrotum. Treatment depends on the neglect of the disease state and is aimed at eliminating all the foci of inflammation.