Analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy
The analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is given after the woman's treatment in the women's consultation. The causative agent of toxoplasmosis is a parasite, which can be infected from domestic animals, mostly from cats or by eating thermally unprocessed meat. If before the conception a woman has transferred toxoplasmosis in a latent form, then she has already formed a strong immunity, so the future child is not threatened. If the fact of primary infection is established in the first trimester, then the probability of infection of the child is 15-20%, if in the 2nd trimester - 30%, in the third trimester - 60%. To prevent infection, you need to monitor personal hygiene, eat roasted meat, disinfect the pet's toilet and do not contact with street cats.
Normally, if there is no IgM antibody in the blood, then there is no toxoplasmosis either. If IgM antibodies are detected in the blood (which indicates an acute stage) to toxoplasmosis, it is necessary to begin treatment as soon as possible, and also to conduct an additional examination. If IgG antibodies are detected in the blood, this indicates a previous infection, and the antibodies in the blood will persist for another ten years. In acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, in addition to treating the mother, ultrasound of the fetus is shown - to make sure that the child is not enlarged liver and spleen, the ventricles of the brain are not dilated and there are no other vices.
Rubella test for pregnancy
The analysis for rubella during pregnancy is carried out in conjunction with other tests for infection. The direction for this analysis is given at the beginning of pregnancy in order to have time to prescribe the treatment in case of detection of the pathogen.
Using a test for rubella, you can determine whether there is an antibody in the blood. If the future mother suffered a rubella in the early stages of pregnancy, the likelihood that the child will suffer from cataracts, deafness and heart defects significantly increases. If the disease is fixed for 11-16 weeks, the risk of severe pathologies is reduced, and the minimum violations are fixed after 20 weeks.
If a pregnant woman has a suspicion of having rubella transmitted in a latent form, then you need to seek advice from an infectious disease specialist and undergo a triple test and ultrasound to rule out the development of pathology in the unborn child. If after a triple examination the fact of anomalies in the pod is confirmed, the doctors recommend that the pregnancy be interrupted. Therefore, it is best to pass the rubella test for half a year before conception planning so that, in the absence of antibodies to the disease, it is time to inoculate and activate the production of G-antibodies.
Analysis for chlamydia in pregnancy
Analysis of chlamydia in pregnancy is carried out in conjunction with other tests for infection. The direction to this analysis is given at an early pregnancy, in order to have time to prescribe treatment in case of detection of the pathogen. Chlamydia can be identified in two ways - take a swab from the vagina or urethra, or take the blood from the vein and test it for the presence of antibodies. The most effective method of diagnosis is the detection of antibodies to chlamydia in the blood. If antibodies in a small amount, then we can judge that the disease is chronic and the woman is the carrier. If the percentage of antibodies is high, then this indicates an exacerbation of the infection.
Chlamydia can also affect the health of the fetus in the early stages, but if a woman previously had chlamydia and has a small percentage of antibodies to the pathogen in her blood and there were no exacerbations during pregnancy, the risk is minimal. If the disease is in an acute stage, then a course of specific antibacterial therapy is prescribed. Pick up such drugs that do not pass through the placenta and can not cause even greater harm to the fetus. In addition, the course of antibacterial drugs should be short and complete with a control diagnosis several days after the withdrawal of drugs.
Analysis for herpes during pregnancy
The analysis for herpes during pregnancy is carried out in conjunction with other tests for infection. The direction for this analysis is given at an early pregnancy, in order to have time to prescribe treatment and take the necessary measures in case of detection of the pathogen.
Herpes refers to viral diseases, it is easily recognized by the characteristic bubble itchy rash. There are two herpes viruses - one of them affects the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, eyes, and the other affects only the genital area. The virus can be infected during sex and by airborne droplets, but also by herpes can get infected vertically if the pregnant woman has a chronic or acute form of the disease.
It is especially important to pass the test for herpes in the first trimester of pregnancy, because it is during this period that getting the virus into the fetus can lead to its death or severe pathologies, ultimately incompatible with life, as well as miscarriage.
Antibodies to herpes begin to be produced as early as 14-21 days after the virus enters the body, so it is not difficult to diagnose herpes just like any other torch infection. To ensure that the result is as reliable as possible, it is better to take the material for analysis in the morning, on an empty stomach, and make preliminary food intake no later than 8 hours later. Also, it is impossible to take an analysis after the start of treatment - this will give a deliberately false result.
- If the indicator S / CO <0.9, then the result can be considered negative.
- If S / CO 0.9 is 1.1, then the result can be considered doubtful.
- If the result S / CO> 1,1, then the result can be considered positive.
Analysis for cytomegalovirus in pregnancy
Analysis of cytomegalovirus during pregnancy is very important in pregnancy. This type of virus easily penetrates the placenta into the fetus and not only leads to infection, but also affects the formation of severe developmental malformations. An antibody test is performed in the first trimester of pregnancy to assess the likely risk to the fetus as it develops. The blood sampling rules for cytomegalovirus analysis are the same as for the whole TORCH complex.
If a woman has old antibodies to the cytomegalovirus in her blood, it means that she was already infected earlier, but now the presence of antibodies does not represent a visible threat to the fetus. To avoid exacerbation, drugs that increase immunity, as well as vitamin complexes are recommended.
If, however, antibodies of a different type are detected in the blood, are characteristic of an acute infection, then it is necessary to seriously take an interest in the further management of pregnancy. Even if the course of the disease itself did not clinically cause a violent picture in a woman, the fetus is subjected to a fetus in utero. At this stage, a woman is prescribed a complex of antiviral drugs and drugs responsible for immune modulation. In the future, the woman will need to undergo a "triple test" to make sure that the transferred infection does not cause the fetus to develop malformations.
The analysis for cytomegalovirus during pregnancy should be given as early as possible, but it is still safer to take the test for cytomegalovirus infection before conception of the child in order to have an idea of further tactics or risk factors.
Analysis for avidity in pregnancy
The analysis of avidity during pregnancy during pregnancy refers to mandatory tests, as cytomegalovirus infection refers to the TORCH-complex, that is, diseases affecting the productivity and health of the fetus. An examination for antibodies to diseases from this group is included in the list of mandatory tests not only for pregnant women, but also for those planning to plan a pregnancy.
The concept of avidity (IgG-antibodies act as an indicator of infection), that is, the presence of antibodies to a particular pathogen suggests that the future mother can be a carrier of the pathogen, have a chronic or acute form of the disease. Depending on the form of antibodies in the blood, their number, you can establish the timing of an approximate infection. For reproductive infections, this is very important, since the earlier this information is available, the greater the chance of a successful pregnancy outcome. Investigation of avidity also provides the basis for additional tests, especially if, in connection with infection, the development of fetal anomalies is implied.
If antibodies like IgG- and IgM are detected in the blood, this indicates that the infection has occurred recently, since IgM-type antibodies usually disappear after 3 months or more, and reach a period of 2-3 years, depending on the pathogen and its concentration . It is also important to take into account that people who have AIDS and HIV antibodies in the blood may not be detected due to the suppression of immunity and therefore in this case it is better to conduct PCR diagnostics.
In order not to risk the baby's health, it is better to take TORCH tests in time for pregnancy. The detection of IgM-type antibodies in the blood suggests an acute stage of the disease, and antibodies such as IgG suggest that the woman either suffered the disease earlier or is a carrier.