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Frequent sneezing, runny nose and coughing during pregnancy

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 02.11.2018
 
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Sneezing during pregnancy does not have any distinctive features from sneezing in an ordinary person. The causes and symptoms are very similar, whether it's a pregnant woman or a child. But when it comes to approaches to treatment, pregnancy is a special condition that you should consider even in the most common illness. That's why you need to know about this.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]

Causes of the sneezing during pregnancy

It is important to note that sneezing is the most common protective symptom that was created by nature. This reflex is expressed in every person, and it helps to ensure the highest level of protection of our respiratory tract from various mechanical and biological stimuli. When the upper respiratory tract, the nasopharynx or the nasal cavity, gets an irritant, then the nerve fibers react immediately. These fibers are in the mucosa, and their main function is to perceive such irritations. Under normal conditions, there are small cilia on the epithelium in the nasal cavity, which do not pass through all bad bacteria or dust particles. But when there are many pathogens, the cilia coping with this function are inferior. Either the function of the cilia can be reduced after the disease, for example, after rhinitis. Therefore at once it is necessary to allocate the risk factor is a transferred disease of the top respiratory ways. So, when the pathogens still fall on the mucosa, the neurons immediately perceive it and give a signal about it to the structures of the brain. In fact, the brain does not even have time to "think", that it is necessary to sneeze, since it would take a lot of time. Therefore, information is processed not at the level of the brain itself, but at the level of the reflex connections with which each person is born. Therefore, the pathogenesis lies precisely in the reflex of sneezing, which is developed in every person.

The main goal of the sneeze reflex is to eliminate the foreign body from the respiratory tract in order to protect the lower respiratory tract.

Therefore, the main reason for sneezing in all people is the ingestion of a foreign agent on the mucous membranes. But also the cause of sneezing can be a disease, and in pregnant women this reason is more common, simply because they are more susceptible to different diseases.

Among the pathologies that cause sneezing, you can identify infectious and allergic causes.

Infections can be caused by viruses (influenza virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus ), which often happens, but can also be caused by bacteria. The virus, when it gets on the mucous membrane, also causes irritation and sneezing. This may be the first manifestation even before other symptoms develop. The virus multiplies at the site of the hit, in this case on the upper respiratory tract, which subsequently causes epithelial cell detachment and rhinorrhea. Constant irritation of the nasal cavity in rhinitis during the disease is the cause of sneezing.

Allergy seasonal or year-round can be the cause or even a symptom of sneezing. When an allergy occurs on the flowering of plants, then the symptoms are disturbed during the period when these plants bloom. But also the allergy can be and not only on flowering, but on pollen, on petals of the plant, or on household irritants, then the allergy worries all year round.

trusted-source[6], [7], [8], [9]

Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of allergic diseases is associated with the release of excessive amounts of histamine. It is a substance that is released from cells under the influence of an allergen. Histamine is able to dilate the vessels in the locus, it helps secret secretion of cells, thus, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis develop. Such constant irritation against the background of the action of histamine is the main cause of sneezing, and at the same time a symptom of allergy.

Sneezing as a sign of pregnancy is not exactly an equivalent concept. After all, this is not a symptom at all, since it is not related to the process of pregnancy. Simply pregnant women, especially in the first trimester, are more sensitive to different irritants, and they can sneeze more often. But if a woman sneezes more often, it does not mean that you are expecting a child.

There is a nuance to consider. In the third trimester of pregnancy, when the fetus is large enough, it often happens that the nasal mucosa is swelling and there is a feeling of nasal congestion without symptoms of infection. In this case, there may be a sneeze. But this symptom is very dangerous, especially if a woman has high blood pressure. This may be one of the symptoms of a threatening condition - pre-eclampsia. Therefore, the period of pregnancy and your state of health plays a huge role, even with the appearance of such an insignificant symptom as sneezing.

trusted-source[10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20]

Symptoms of the sneezing during pregnancy

Sneezing during pregnancy is a symptom of the disease, when there are other manifestations. When it comes to a simple viral illness, sneezing can be one of the symptoms that appear first.

The first signs of a viral infection can begin with sneezing. When a huge amount of the virus gets on the mucosa, and they begin to increase in quantity, it occurs in the cells of the epithelium. In this case, the neuronal endings are irritated, which causes mechanical irritation and sneezing, as a protective reflex. This can eliminate a certain number of viruses, but they have already begun to multiply. Therefore, further develop other symptoms of the disease - nasal congestion, discharge, runny nose and sneezing during pregnancy, which is dangerous in the early stages. Sneezing during early pregnancy is a threat if it is a symptom of a viral infection, because it is during this period that the child is very vulnerable. There is a bookmark of all organs and systems, and therefore any virus at this time can be very dangerous. And when sneezing appears in the early stages, you need to be wary in terms of manifesting the infection. Therefore, it is necessary to take preventive measures.

Coughing and sneezing during pregnancy are already more serious symptoms that indicate a possible defeat of the lower respiratory tract. A simple viral infection, which could begin with sneezing, can lead to the fact that the inflammatory process is not limited only to the upper respiratory tract. In this case, the pathogens will penetrate into the lower respiratory tract, causing inflammation of the bronchi - bronchitis. Cough is just a symptom of bronchitis. This is a more serious condition, because often in this case, the bacteria can be attached to the viruses, which requires another more aggressive treatment.

Allergic sneezing during pregnancy is easy to determine, because it occurs after contact with the allergen. Then, other than sneezing, there are other symptoms. There is puffiness under the eyes, lachrymation, discharge from the nose are mucous in nature or there may be just a stuffy nose. But the main distinguishing feature after all is the appearance of symptoms after contact with the allergen.

What are the consequences and complications of sneezing in pregnant women? Dangerous and harmful if sneezing during pregnancy? Danger may represent an infectious disease if it is complicated by a bacterial infection, such as bronchitis or pneumonia.

If it is an allergic sneeze, then during pregnancy, women become more sensitive to the action of an allergen. Therefore, a simple allergic rhinitis can be complicated even by the development of an attack of suffocation.

A sharp sneezing during pregnancy causes an active contraction of the diaphragm and the muscles of the press. This may cause pain when sneezing in the lower abdomen, in the ovaries during pregnancy, which may seem a threat to the child. But if the pregnancy is stable, then do not worry.

Frequent and severe sneezing during pregnancy in the third trimester can lead to such unpleasant things as involuntary urination. In fact, urinary incontinence when sneezing during pregnancy can be easily explained. When the uterus is significantly increased in size, it presses on the bladder. At the same time the sphincter can not work so actively, and with such a strong effort during sneezing, it can relax. This leads to such an unpleasant phenomenon. How to sneeze properly during pregnancy, so that there are no such phenomena? First, you do not have to do it so abruptly. You need to relax, then sneeze, but without restraining the effort in yourself.

Can sneezing harm a pregnancy if its cause is non-infectious. Speaking theoretically, if the pregnancy is healthy, then sneezing will not affect it in any way. But if there is a pathology of pregnancy, for example, placenta previa, then any excessive effort can cause premature birth. Only in this case, in theory, sneezing can do much harm.

Diagnostics of the sneezing during pregnancy

Diagnosis is not particularly difficult. If, in addition to sneezing, there are other symptoms, this may be due to a viral infection or an allergy. Differential diagnosis of a viral infection is not difficult. And if there is an increase in body temperature, then this is clearly not the allergic cause of sneezing. Given that there is a pregnancy, the diagnosis should always be complete. Therefore, one should not self-medicate and always need to consult a doctor.

Analyzes should be conducted for a woman general, which consist in a general blood test and a general analysis of urine. This will eliminate bacterial inflammation. If necessary, additional studies are carried out. As a rule, if it is a simple viral disease, then the monitoring of the fetal condition is not carried out, if there are no complaints. Just conducted routine surveys. Instrumental diagnostics can be used to monitor a fetus if a woman has complications or a pregnancy problem. Then it is possible to conduct additional ultrasound examination or cardiotocography of the fetus.

trusted-source[21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29]

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Treatment of the sneezing during pregnancy

Treatment of sneezing, as a symptom of the disease, as such is not. It is important to first establish the cause, and, based on this, to use medicines that are allowed for pregnant women.

If sneezing is a symptom of a viral infection, then it is possible to use non-specific antiviral drugs that do not harm during pregnancy.

  1. Viferon is an antiviral drug whose main active ingredient is recombinant interferon, which is similar in action to human interferon. Interferon activates the body's defenses, has direct antiviral activity. The drug is allowed for pregnant women after the second week of pregnancy. Method of application in the form of rectal suppositories. Dosage for an adult woman - one candle 500 thousand international units twice a day. The drug of this group is not recommended for more than five days in treatment. Side effects can be in the form of allergic phenomena.
  2. Arbidol is an antiviral drug of a homeopathic origin that can be used to treat viral infections in pregnant women. The drug, due to its composition, has pronounced immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. The way of using the drug in the form of tablets is most convenient in dosing for adults. Dosage for treatment - tablets of 200 milligrams three times a day. Side effects are very rare, there may be an allergic rash.
  3. L - cet is an antiallergic drug of a new generation, the active substance of which is levocetirizine. All antihistamines during pregnancy should be used with great care. The instruction indicates that the drug can be used only in cases where the expected effect exceeds the risk from taking the drug. But if a woman sneezes due to allergic rhinitis, which she previously treated and controlled with nasal corticosteroids, then their use during pregnancy should be discontinued. Therefore, antihistamines in some cases may be the drugs of choice for treating allergic sneezing. Method of application of the drug in the form of tablets. Dosage - 5 milligrams once a day. Long-term use during pregnancy of these funds is also limited. Side effects can be in the form of drowsiness, impaired coordination, double vision.

Vitamins can be used by a woman throughout pregnancy, but only special vitamin remedies for pregnant women. On the viral infections or allergic diseases, or on the very sneezing, vitamins do not affect.

Physiotherapeutic treatment during pregnancy is not applied.

Surgical treatment of pathologies that cause sneezing is not used.

Alternative treatment

Alternative therapies can be a priority, since many specific medications can not be used in pregnant women. During the period when sneezing appears, as the first sign of a cold and a viral infection, alternative methods are very effective. After all, many alternative drugs can prevent the development of a viral infection in the future.

  1. Cranberry tea is an excellent antiviral and immunomodulating agent that is effective at the first symptoms of a cold. Cranberries have antitoxic properties and anti-inflammatory properties, so if there is a slight increase in body temperature, characteristic of a mild viral infection, cranberry perfectly cures these symptoms. To make tea it is better to use dried cranberries, it contains more vitamins. To do this, you need three hundred grams of cranberries and a liter of hot boiled water, pour the berries and insist for three hours. Then the tea should be heated and drunk in small sips throughout the day.
  2. Raspberry tea is a means of alternative medicine, long known for the treatment of colds. Given that raspberries in pregnant women can cause allergies, whole berries are not recommended. Therefore, for the preparation of tea, you need to take a few twigs from a bush of raspberries and steaming in hot boiled water, after a few minutes. To drink such tea you need often small portions. Since there are no special taste qualities in this tea, it can be sweetened.
  3. The medicine from viburnum is also a well-known immunomodulating agent. Kalina has natural phytoncides and antiviral substances that are capable of killing bacteria. For the medicine, you can take fresh berries of viburnum, rub it on a blender, add thirty grams of lemon zest and two tablespoons of honey. All you need to mix and eat on a teaspoon three times a day. You can add this medicine to tea.
  4. The medicine from ginger also has natural antiviral properties. To get a recipe, you need one hundred twenty grams of ginger root, peel it and cut into small pieces. To it you need to add two teaspoons of honey and half the pulp of lemon, you can even with zedra. All you need to grind the blender and let it brew. Take the medicine on a teaspoon twice a day before meals.
  5. Tea from sea-buckthorn is also known for its preventive antiviral properties. For cooking, you need to take berries of sea-buckthorn, rub them with honey in a ratio of 3 to 1. Then in the slurry you need to add warm boiled water and drink as compote three to four times a day.

Herbs in the treatment of sneezing in a pregnant woman can also be used only if the allergic nature is excluded. Most often, herbs are used as infusions and teas for the treatment of colds.

  1. Lime tea is a highly effective antiviral. To make tea you need to take dry petals and linden flowers, pour hot water and insist. Take need instead of tea every two to three hours in an acute period.
  2. Mother-and-stepmother is an herb that has antiviral activity, and also coughs. For medical infusion it is necessary to take dry grass and pour a glass of hot water. Insist need a few minutes and drink a tablespoon every three hours in a warm form.
  3. Plantain is a well-known herb that can be used not only as a wound-healing remedy, but also as an antiviral. To prepare medicinal infusion it is necessary to take dry leaves of plantain, rinse them and pour boiled hot water. It is necessary to insist twenty minutes and drink in a warm form on a glass of this tea three times a day.

Homeopathy in the treatment of viral infections is also widely used. These funds are made from natural substances, so most homeopathic remedies are allowed for pregnant women.

  1. Esbérythritis is a homeopathic antiviral and immunomodulating agent that can be effective in the treatment and prevention of viral infections, as well as their complications. Method of application of the drug in the form of tablets. For adults, the dosage is two tablets three times a day. Side effects can be in the form of allergic phenomena on the skin.
  2. Influcid is a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of viral infections. In addition to antiviral activity, the drug also stimulates the production of its own interferon, which enhances the immune response. Method of oral administration. Dosage - one tablet three times a day. Side effects can be in the form of light dizziness, allergic rash, as well as abdominal pain that passes through a couple of days of treatment.
  3. Umcalor is a homeopathic remedy that is made on the basis of Pelargonium extract. The drug has not only antiviral activity, but also weak antibacterial activity. Method of application of the drug in the form of drops. Dosage for adults - 30 drops three times a day. Adverse events can be infrequent, sometimes there is an allergic rash or other respiratory allergic manifestations.

trusted-source[30], [31], [32], [33]

Prevention

Preventing the appearance of sneezing in pregnant women should be particularly careful, since in this position women are particularly vulnerable. Pregnant women tend to have more allergic manifestations, so sneezing can be associated with it. Therefore, preventive measures are recommended for a pregnant woman. It is necessary to use frequent wet cleaning with hypoallergenic agents. Also need to use hygienic products hypoallergenic. It is very important to eat healthy food with a high content of vegetables and fruits, which provides the body with vitamins. It is also necessary to prevent colds, avoiding contact with infectious patients.

trusted-source[34], [35], [36], [37], [38]

Forecast

Prognosis favorable for the development of the child. If sneezing is caused by an allergic disease, then most often it can become aggravated on the background of pregnancy, which must be remembered. Therefore, it is best to avoid known allergens if possible.

Sneezing during pregnancy is not always a harmless symptom, at times it is the first manifestation of an infectious disease. The second cause of frequent sneezing can be an allergic disease. Therefore, before starting treatment, you need to find out the reason, and then decide on the methods of treatment that will not harm the baby.

trusted-source[39]

It is important to know!

Among unconditioned reflexes embedded from birth, a protective reaction of the organism is evolved such as sneezing-a strong sudden uncontrolled release of air from the lungs through the nasopharynx, which occurs when the nasal mucosa irritates.

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