A very important stage in the treatment of dysbiosis is proper nutrition. And if we are talking about the fact that the main food for the baby is breast milk, it is very important what exactly the mother eats.
Infants feeding exclusively on mother's milk develop a specific flora within the first week after birth, which becomes dominant by the end of the first month of life. The primary flora of the child is the flora of the birth canal and colon of the mother.
The combination of acid medium (lactic acid), probiotics and prebiotic factors (bifidofactor, lactoferrin, casein and nucleotides) leads to the formation of a flora in which the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria predominate by the end of the first month. Therefore, the mother's diet not only affects the quality of milk, but also on the functional activity and motility of the baby's intestines. There are certain foods that the nursing mother should exclude from her diet, which may be the only curative treatment for her child's dysbiosis even without the use of medicines. Mom must necessarily exclude all spices from the diet with salt restriction, as well as fried foods. Do not drink whole milk, at least in the first month of your baby's life. The requirements for calcium and phosphorus can be provided by cottage cheese and kefir, which should not exceed 250 grams per day. Coffee should also be excluded, tea can only be green without any additives. It is clear that chocolate and sweet bakery products should also be excluded. In the diet should be a sufficient number of vegetables, fruits. These are general recommendations on the nutrition of the mother, which the doctor can already cope with given certain problems.
In newborns that feed on milk mixtures, a large number of enterobacteria and gram-negative organisms are present in the flora. This is a consequence of the alkaline environment and the absence of prebiotic factors. That's why if a child is on artificial feeding, then he needs additional addition of probiotics and prebiotics in his food in order to avoid the development of dysbacteriosis or for correction if he has already developed.
Mixtures for newborns with dysbacteriosis must necessarily contain substances that normalize the intestinal microflora. First of all, if a child on artificial feeding and receives a mixture, then it must necessarily be adapted. This word says that it contains probiotics in sufficient quantities to prevent the development of dysbacteriosis. Adapted to the mixes include: Baby Premium, Bellakt, Frisolak, NAS, Nestozhen, Hipp. There is another aspect - if the child has already developed a dysbacteriosis, then it is better to choose a mixture with the maximum amount of prebiotics and probiotics. As prebiotics, which are most often used in mixtures include fructo-oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides. These substances entering the intestines of the child are the nutrient medium on which the bacterium so necessary for a child with dysbacteriosis grows.
Choosing a mixture, you need to take into account those manifestations of dysbiosis, which can be a baby. For example, if a child regurgitates, then it is necessary to take an antireflux mixture (HUMANA antireflux) and give it to the child in a small volume, for example 20 grams, at the beginning of the feeding. Then you need to give the bulk of the usual mixture.
If the baby's dysbacteriosis is manifested by diarrhea or constipation, or there are colics on the background of a dysbacteriosis, then the mixture of NAN is triple comfort.
Such nuances in choosing a mixture can be known only by a doctor, so it is important to address such a problem for the correct solution.
Drug correction of a dysbacteriosis in a newborn is, as a rule, always used, since it is very important to restore the correct composition of the microflora of the baby's intestines. There are a lot of probiotic drugs, and to understand them, you need to know the main groups of such drugs.
- Probiotics are microorganisms that, when ingested, can have a positive effect and contribute to the prevention and treatment of a particular pathological condition, in this case, dysbiosis. As a rule, they are of human origin. These microorganisms are not pathogenic and non-toxicogenic, retain their viability during storage. They survive to a certain extent when passing through the stomach and small intestine. Probiotics can create colonies on the surface of the mucous membrane outside the gastrointestinal tract, and when ingested help maintain the health of the oral cavity and the genitourinary system as well.
- Prebiotics are indigestible substances that, upon ingestion, selectively stimulate the growth and formation of colonies of beneficial probiotic bacteria, usually present in the intestine. These include fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) - for example, chicory or inulin, as well as lactulose, lactitol, inulin.
- There are also synbiotics - a combination of prebiotics and probiotics in a single preparation. This is the most optimal combination for complex treatment.
Also, groups of probiotics are identified by generation and composition:
Monocomponent (Lactobacterin, Bifidumbacterin) for today they are practically not used because of a narrow spectrum of action.
- 2 generation is a combination of bacteria with yeast fungi and spores of bacilli (Enterol, Bisospin) - they are used in limited cases with intestinal infections.
- 3 generation - combined (Linex, Bifiform, Lactile) - most often used in antibiotic therapy and in a number of other cases.
Which combine a probiotic and activated charcoal or other substance. In pediatric practice, they are not used daily.
The main drugs that most often use the following:
- Acipol is a drug that belongs to a group of synbiotics. Its composition includes acidophilus bacteria and fungi. Fungi are prebiotics, as they are necessary for the normal growth of bacteria. The mechanism of action of the drug for dysbacteriosis is the activation of acid bacteria, which suppress the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Also, the synthesis of fatty acids in the intestine is stimulated, which changes pH in the intestine and further inhibits the growth of pathogenic flora. Motility and peristalsis are also stimulated due to the active work of kefir-like fungi. This leads to normal emptying of the child and to the improvement of the whole process of digestion. The way of using the drug for the treatment of dysbacteriosis is one capsule three times a day for at least seven days. For prevention use one capsule per day for two weeks. Side effects are observed in the form of a change in the nature of the stool, the appearance of diarrhea - which requires a change in dosage. Precautions - for children in the septic state, the use of any probiotics is not recommended.
- Biosporin is one of the probiotics, which is most often used today. The preparation contains two main strains of living bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis. They with dysbacteriosis in the newborn create conditions for the restoration of their intestinal flora, promote the normalization of the qualitative composition of bacteria in the intestines of the baby. In a newborn, the drug restores a sufficient amount of bifido- and lactobacilli, as well as an E. Coli for dysbacteriosis. The way of using the drug for newborns can be in the form of a sachet or in vials. The dosage of the drug for treatment is one dose (in the form of a sachet or in a vial) per day. The drug should be dissolved in a teaspoon of milk or mixture and give the child. Duration of therapy is about 10-15 days. Side effects when using the drug were not detected.
- Enterol is a drug that is used to treat dysbacteriosis, which develops against a background of prolonged antibacterial therapy and is accompanied by diarrhea. The composition of the drug includes yeast-like fungi Saharomycettis Bullardi, which show their antagonistic effect against many pathogenic microbes involved in the development of dysbacteriosis in the baby. Also fungi neutralize toxins that are released in the intestines and disrupt its normal functioning. The drug reduces the severity of diarrhea due to direct action. The method of using the drug for newborns is the best way to use a sachet. For a day, one sachet once for seven days. Side effects can be as manifestations of constipation.
- Linex-baby is a probiotic preparation, which includes bifidobacteria, which, with dysbacteriosis, act on pathogenic microbes and reduce their activity. Bifidobacteria are representatives of the normal flora of a newborn from the first hours of his life, so a sufficient number of them helps restore that flora, which is not enough for dysbiosis. The way of using the drug is most convenient in the form of a sachet. For the treatment of dysbacteriosis, it is necessary to apply one sachet per day, dissolving it in milk or a mixture for feeding. Side effects can be in children with immune reactions in the form of rashes, itching.
- Bio-gay is a probiotic, which is actively used to correct problems associated with dysbiosis in newborns. The composition of the drug includes active strains of the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri, which contribute to the improvement of the intestinal state due to the synthesis of lactic and acetic acids. These acids suppress the growth of many pathogenic microbes and thus restore normal flora. The method of application of the drug - 5 drops per day, adding them to the mixture or breast milk. Dysbacteriosis is treated for ten days. Precautions - the preparation can have vitamin D in the composition, which must be taken into account already during the prevention of rickets to prevent an overdose of vitamin D.
- Prama is a preparation from the group of synbiotics, which contains prebiotics in the form of fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. This drug, getting into the intestines of the baby, immediately begins to work at the expense of the prebiotic. It inhibits the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and prevents their further growth. The method of use in newborns in the form of drops - ten drops per day, dissolving them in milk. Treatment can be carried out for two to four weeks. There were no side effects.
Vitamins in the treatment of dysbacteriosis can only be used in the diet of the mother if she is breastfeeding. After all, some vitamins are needed for normal life of the intestinal flora. For this purpose, nursing mothers can only use vitamins for pregnant women, which are checked accordingly.
Physiotherapeutic treatment of dysbacteriosis in a newborn is used only in isolated cases. Most often, when the dysbacteriosis develops after surgical interventions on the stomach or intestines of the child, then there may be a need for such therapy only in the rehabilitation period. In acute period and with primary dysbacteriosis, physiotherapy in infants is not applied.
Very often mothers are wondering whether it is possible to cure dysbiosis to a baby without using a variety of medications. After all, there are children's yoghurts, kefir, which contain natural beneficial bacteria. The answer here is unequivocal - you can prevent dysbacteriosis, but you can not cure it. All this is because, firstly, newborns should not be given anything but a mixture and milk, even children's yoghurts are allowed as complementary foods from eight months on. Secondly, they contain a very small number of bacteria that can not compete with a huge number of pathogens. For treatment should be the concentration of bacteria of a certain type in a certain amount. Therefore, the use of probiotics in the treatment of dysbacteriosis is a priority. That is why alternative methods of treatment, treatment with herbs and homeopathic preparations are not used in this case. On the contrary, these all methods can only additionally load and allergize the child's body.