Preparation and technique of analysis
To determine the level of chorionic gonadotropin in pregnancy, various methods of laboratory diagnosis are used. The simplest variant of the assay are test strips, the mechanism of action of which is based precisely on the increase in the level of hCG after conception.
The pregnancy test can be purchased at any pharmacy and even in grocery supermarkets. It is a light strip with a reagent applied to it, which changes color upon contact with the urine, resulting in a second stripe that indicates pregnancy.
The matter is that after 6-8 days after conception in urine there is already sufficient level of gonadotropin for diagnosing pregnancy. Another thing is that the sensitivity of most tests allows you to detect pregnancy only after 2 or more weeks. The most accurate are the inkjet and digital tests, which should not be lowered into a container with urine or dripping urine on them, but delivered under a fresh stream.
10 seconds of contact of the test strip with urine is sufficient for the reaction to begin, and its result can be seen after 1-10 minutes, depending on the level of hCG. But if the usual tests for hormone concentration and pregnancy time can be judged mainly on the intensity of the color of the manifested stripe, the electronic version of the test will provide information in a digital version.
Such an analysis on hCG is quite suitable for determining pregnancy, but it can say little about its timing and the nature of the course. Those. The usual tests for hCG with ectopic pregnancy will be of little informative. They will show the presence of pregnancy in any case, but the level of gonadotropin and the dynamics of its growth can only be guessed. Suspicious may seem insufficiently intense color of the second strip or its absence during repeated inspections.
The digital test in this regard is more interesting, because it allows you to evaluate the concentration of the hormone, and in the second analysis even assess how much the hCG level has increased over a certain period of time. Such changes give a greater percentage of true results in the first 2 months of pregnancy, after which such incidents as a negative result of a pregnancy test are possible.
In a similar way, urine is analyzed for chorionic gonadotropin in the laboratory. A pregnant woman in this case will need to pass on a fresh morning urine analysis. Why the morning? Because the concentration of the gonadotropin affects the volume of the liquid being drunk. The more water a woman drinks, the lower the concentration of the pregnancy hormone, which will distort the true results. The day before taking the test, it is also not recommended to drink plenty of fluids, especially before going to bed.
With ectopic pregnancy and other complications, the most appropriate is to conduct a blood test for hCG. In the blood gonadotropin is detected faster than in the urine, and the results of the blood test are considered the most accurate. Blood is taken from the vein, after which a liquid part is separated with the help of a centrifuge and reagents are added. The analyzer converts the quantitative results into digital, which is used to diagnose the course of pregnancy.
Any analysis is of diagnostic value, if its results are reliable, therefore, some preparation is often required before the analysis. Ideally, blood, like urine, must be taken in the morning before breakfast, some time after awakening. But even if the blood will have to be taken at another time, to improve the accuracy of research, it is recommended to refrain from eating and limit the use of water and 5-7 hours before taking blood for analysis.
Almost every woman dreams at one perfect moment to become a happy mother of her own baby. But for this she has to conceive and endure a child. Fertilization of the egg occurs after its release into the fallopian tube, but this is not enough for the normal development of pregnancy. In the future, the duet from which the human embryo (embryo) is formed, must follow the fallopian tube directly to the uterus, where it is fixed to a permanent place of residence 2-3 weeks after the occurred conception.
But sometimes it happens that the egg in the allotted time does not have time to infiltrate the uterus and it has to "settle" elsewhere. Most often, the site of its localization is the uterine tube itself, less often the fetal egg is fixed near the ovary, in the abdominal cavity or cervix of the uterus. In any case, if the embryo develops outside the uterus, one speaks of a pathology called "ectopic pregnancy".
This situation is considered unsuitable for the normal development of the child, especially if the fetus is entrenched inside the uterine tube. The dimensions of the lumen of the fallopian tube are not calculated to increase the fertilized egg, which occurs as the fetus grows and develops, so the fetus lags behind in development and soon dies. To keep such a pregnancy just does not make sense.
Moreover, ectopic pregnancy is a threat to the life of a pregnant woman. A small lumen of the fallopian tube and insufficient elasticity of its walls are a risk factor for organ rupture as the fetus grows. This is an extremely dangerous situation, in which there are severe pains and profuse internal bleeding. If the patient does not help in time, the woman faces death. And even if doctors manage to save her life, it will not be possible to restore the damaged uterine tube, so the possibility of becoming pregnant will be extremely low. After all, even after a timely intervention, the chances of pregnancy are reduced by half.
In the first months after conception, it is almost impossible to distinguish ectopic pregnancy from normal without special studies. A woman can even develop a toxicosis in the early stages, swell the mammary glands, stop menstruating or turn into a monthly meager daub.
Regardless of the site of embryo localization, a protective shell (chorion) surrounds it, which produces chorionic gonadotropin, which means that the level of hCG in ectopic pregnancy will increase. What, then, can analysis help in such a situation? And the fact that hCG in uterine and ectopic pregnancy are significantly different.