Biochemical analysis in pregnancy

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 23.04.2024

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Biochemical analysis during pregnancy refers to mandatory tests. With the help of a biochemical blood test, you can find out about the presence of foci of inflammation in the body, identify violations in the work of all systems and organs.

For analysis take venous blood on an empty stomach, on the eve it is better not to eat food with preservatives, fatty food, drink only water better. The analysis is done at registration, at 28 and 34 weeks.

A detailed examination of the blood makes it possible to learn about such indicators:

  • The content of proteins (albumins, globulins).
  • The content of lipid fractions (phospholipids, triglycerides, etc.).
  • The content of carbohydrate fractions, glucose.
  • The content of enzymes (cholinesterase, creatine kinase, lipase, etc.).
  • The state of electrolyte balance (percentage of iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, etc.).
  • Identification of markers of iron deficiency - serum iron, LHS, transferrin, ferritin.
  • The content of bilirubin in the blood.
  • The content of urea, creatinine, urea.
  • The content of antibodies.

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Analysis for ferritin in pregnancy

An analysis of ferritin in pregnancy is of great diagnostic value. Based on the analysis, it is possible to identify the development of iron deficiency anemia at an early stage, and in pregnancy this is very important, since not only the mother but the fetus usually suffers from lack of iron (the development of oxygen starvation is provoked).

With the help of the analysis, it is possible not only to diagnose anemia in time, but also to assess iron stores in the body, to identify foci of chronic inflammation, to diagnose tumor diseases.

The analysis for ferritin is the most convenient method for diagnosing ferritin. It also makes it possible to evaluate the quality of iron assimilation proportional to the percentage of ferritin in the blood. A normal ferritin content of 13-150 μg / l, if its percentage increases to 400 μg / l or more, this indicates liver pathologies in the acute or chronic phase, CRF, with certain tumorous diseases (pulmonary carcinoma, colon carcinoma, carcinoma lesions liver, prostate, leukemia in the acute phase, Hodgkin's disease). When the ferritin content is less than 10-15 μg / l uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia develops.

Blood for analysis is better to take in the morning, on an empty stomach, the last meal should not be earlier than 8 hours ago, and the food should be light and non-caloric. Also, analysis can not be carried out if treatment is conducted in parallel.

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Analysis for sugar in pregnancy

Analysis for sugar during pregnancy is given repeatedly throughout the term of gestation. The future mother donates not only urine, but also blood for sugar - so you can monitor any physiological changes in her body and in time to notice such a violation as diabetes.

Pregnancy is one of the factors contributing to the development of diabetes, so being in an "interesting" position, you need to pay special attention to the level of glucose in the blood and urine. The risk group includes those pregnant women who:

  • They have a hereditary penchant for diabetes.
  • Pregnant is more than 35 years old.
  • Pregnant has excess weight or fixed the fact of obesity.
  • Earlier the pregnancy was complicated or ended with miscarriage.
  • Pregnant was treated for infertility with hormones.
  • The pregnant woman already had large children (this indicates a latent form of diabetes).

To carry out the analysis on sugar at pregnancy it is necessary two times - for 8-12 and 30 weeks. If at the first delivery an increase in the concentration of sugar in the blood was recorded, an additional TSH test is performed to check how the pancreas cope with its task. It's right to give blood to sugar in the morning, on an empty stomach, so as not to get a false result.

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Analysis of coagulation during pregnancy

An analysis of the coagulogram during pregnancy should be performed by absolutely every woman. With the help of this analysis, you can find out how fast the blood turns and bleeding is eliminated physiologically. Displacement of the norms of coagulation can cause very serious complications in pregnancy. So, a tendency to thrombosis can trigger a stroke, heart attack, vein thrombosis, and also lead to an abortion. Also, the high rate of blood clots can affect the health of the fetus - lead to the formation of brain abnormalities.

Throughout pregnancy, the coagulogram should be analyzed at least three times. To hand over a blood sample is necessary on an empty stomach, the last meal should not be earlier than 8 hours ago. If there are deviations in the results of coagulation tests, you may need to reseed the blood or perform an additional examination. If the pregnant woman has varicose veins, liver disease or autoimmune pathologies, the analysis will have to be given more than three times, even if the pregnancy is without dangerous complications.

Normal analysis for coagulation during pregnancy:

  • The value of APTTV is 17-20 s;
  • The value of fibrinogen is up to 6.5 g / l;
  • The significance of lupus anticoagulant is absent;
  • The number of platelets is 131-402 thousand / mkl;
  • The prothrombin value is 78-142%;
  • Thrombin time is 18-25 s;
  • The D-dimer value is 33-726 ng / ml;
  • The value of antithrombin III is 70-115%.

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Analysis of lupus in pregnancy

Analysis of lupus in pregnancy should be carried out without fail, as the disease can occur in an unexpressed form, but subsequently significantly complicate the course of pregnancy. Lupus in pregnancy can cause:

  • Pre-eclampsia is a severe condition in which kidney function is affected and blood pressure rises.
  • Unintention of pregnancy. A quarter of pregnancies with lupus are spontaneously interrupted or result in stillbirth.
  • Birth before the term.
  • Intrauterine growth retardation and fetal development.
  • Placental thrombosis. Because of the immune conflict, a large number of fetuses are formed in lupus, and this leads to a decrease in the permeability of the placenta and a lack of nutrients and oxygen in the fetus.

When the lupus is confirmed in a pregnant woman in chronic form, an individual treatment regimen is prepared to not only support the mother's body but support its normal growth and development. If Ro and La antibodies are detected in the blood of a woman, this means that the future child will already have neonatal lupus, manifested by a rash and a decrease in the level of platelets. But after 3-6 months the disease passes, but it is possible that the baby will have a mild heart pathology requiring additional treatment.

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Analysis for antibodies in pregnancy

Analysis for antibodies during pregnancy is conducted in order to exclude the possibility of a rhesus-conflict between the mother and the unborn child. If the future mother has a negative Rh, and the fetus has a positive one, it often becomes a reason for miscarriage or provoke a hemolytic disease in the baby. It is better to deal with the question of determining the Rh factor, blood group and to identify whether there is an alloimmune anti-erythrocyte antibody in the blood before the pregnancy planning or at its early stages in order to take the necessary measures to manage pregnancy. If the future mother is Rh positive, and the fetus is negative, then pregnancy is not threatened, and there are no reasons for the development of hemolytic disease.

Antibodies are specific proteins, increasing the levels of some of them can adversely affect the health of the unborn child. If the antibody content is higher than 1: 4, it will be necessary to undergo more ultrasound to monitor the fetus. If during the whole pregnancy the antibody titer does not increase, then this is a prerequisite for the successful bearing of the fetus.

To give blood for an antibody test in pregnancy is better in the morning and do not eat too much fat and protein foods on the eve. When confirming the fact of Rh-conflict and with a high antibody titer, a decision is made about the special smoking of pregnancy.

Biochemical analysis during pregnancy makes it possible to follow changes in the body of the expectant mother during pregnancy and at an early stage to diagnose abnormalities and ensure effective and correct treatment of the problem.

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