Undoubtedly, the approach to treating anemia of different etiologies is different. That is why it is so important to know the cause of this or that type of pathology. If it is iron deficiency anemia that has occurred after a prolonged bleeding in a child or due to a congenital pathology of iron absorption abnormalities, then the first step to treatment is to exclude the cause of anemia.
Speaking about iron deficiency anemia, as the most common problem, it should be noted that the main element of the treatment of such anemia is the replenishment of iron reserves. Therefore, the medications used in the treatment are iron preparations. Iron is absorbed most easily from the trivalent form, so iron preparations, especially for newborns, should be in this form. Preparations based on ferric iron are better absorbed, better absorbed and have less negative and side effects.
Treatment of anemia begins not with the calculation of the drug, but with the calculation of the dose of iron, which is necessary for the child. After all, each drug contains a certain amount of iron, which should also be considered when choosing this drug. The therapeutic dose of iron is 3-5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight of the child, which must be taken for a day. The minimum duration of treatment for anemia is one month. Further, if the blood counts within the limits of the norm, then they give a prophylactic dose for another six months. The prophylactic dose is half of the treatment dose, and it is given for ten days of each month for six months. Medicines that are used to treat iron deficiency anemia are as follows:
- Aktiferin - an iron preparation, which also includes an amino acid serine, which provides a better absorption. The drug acts upon ingestion into the intestine and bloodstream due to binding with the protein transferrin. So iron is transported to the liver, bone marrow, where it is released and takes part in the synthesis of hemoglobin and in the formation of new erythrocytes. The drug is available in the form of drops, syrup and capsules. For newborns use the form of drops. One milliliter of the drug in this form contains 9.8 milligrams of iron, this corresponds to 20 drops. Therefore, the dosage is calculated first 3-5 milligrams per child's weight, and then the drug itself. Side effects can be in children in the form of colic, increased gas production, diarrhea or constipation. These are the first signs that indicate the need to reduce the dose of the drug. Precautions - do not use the drug for hemolytic anemia.
- Hemoferon is also an iron preparation, which additionally contains other vitamins - folic acid and cyanocobalamin. The composition of the drug includes citric acid, which helps better absorb the iron molecule. One milliliter of the drug contains 8.2 milligrams of iron. The dosage of the drug is standard, but for newborns, on average, it is 2.5 milliliters daily dose. Side effects can be in the form of vomiting, digestion and stool, staining the feces in a dark color. Precautions - do not use the drug if the liver is damaged in the child or if there is a suspicion of hepatitis.
- Hemofer is a drug that contains an iron molecule of divalent and citric acid. It is most suitable for treatment, in which it is necessary to quickly achieve the results of increasing hemoglobin levels, with the subsequent transition to trivalent preparations. Dosage of the drug - 1 drop contains 1.6 milligrams of iron, and for newborns about 1 drop per kilogram of body weight. Side effects: decreased appetite and rejection of the breast, diarrhea.
- Ferramin-Vit is a preparation of ferric iron, which acts according to the principle of slow restoration of iron level in the child's body. The drug is released in the form of a solution and dosage it - by ZO drops per day for newborns. Side effects occur less frequently than during the reception of ferrous iron and can be limited to dyspepsia.
- Maltofer is a preparation of ferric iron, which has a slow absorption in the intestine, and thanks to this, its physiological concentration is established in the serum. Dosage of the drug 1 drop per kilogram for newborns. The drug in the form of drops can be used by newborns, including preterm infants. Side effects can be in the form of allergic manifestations and staining of the stool.
Such treatment of anemia with iron preparations is carried out a month, then they are given preventive therapy. It is very important during this period if the mother feeds the baby, then her food should contain the maximum amount of iron and all the useful microelements. If the child is on artificial feeding, then it is necessary that the mixture also be enriched with iron. It should be said that in the presence of anemia, the cause of which is a violation of iron absorption, it is necessary to use its injectable forms. The same applies to those cases when the child had an operation on the stomach or intestine and the oral forms of iron can not be used.
Evaluate the effectiveness of treatment should be on the 7-10 day after the beginning, when it is necessary to repeat the blood test. In this case, an increase in the number of reticulocytes will be evidence of a positive dynamics of treatment. The increase in hemoglobin will be observed at the end of the course of treatment in the third or fourth week.
Nursing care for newborn anemia is very important if anemia is congenital. If it is a question of hemolytic anemia or congenital aplastic, it is very important to correctly organize the regime of the child's day, its nutrition. Given that complications can be caused by the influence of bilirubin on the central nervous system, it is important that the medical staff monitor the child. After all, there may be symptoms that threaten the child's life, and mom can simply not notice them because of inexperience. Therefore, the issue of treating congenital anemia in a hospital is so important.
Speaking about the surgical treatment of anemia, it should be noted that severe anemia, in which the hemoglobin level is less than 70, requires a blood transfusion. This is considered an intervention at the surgical level. It is mandatory to determine the blood type of the child and Rh factor.
Surgical treatment of congenital hemolytic anemia is carried out by children at an older age, closer to five years. It is performed in severe anemia with frequent haemolytic crises. The essence of the operation is to remove the spleen. The spleen is an immunocompetent organ in which the destruction of erythrocytes occurs and in the case of hemolytic anemia it is constant. Therefore, splenectomy results in fewer exacerbations, since fewer red blood cells are destroyed. But before such an operation, the child should be vaccinated outside the plan, since such an operation disrupts the normal immune status.
Vitamins for a child with anemia are considered mandatory, as this increases the absorption of iron and has a good effect on appetite. For newborns, vitamins from the carnitine group can be used, which contribute to weight gain, which is important for anemia. One of these drugs is Steatel.
Stevatel - a vitamin, which includes a metabolically active substance levokarnitin. It promotes the assimilation of biologically useful substances and accelerates metabolism in cells, which especially affects the synthesis of new red blood cells. The drug is available as a syrup. One milliliter of syrup contains 100 milligrams of the substance, and the dosage is 50 milligrams per kilogram. The drug can be used even in premature babies. Side effects can be in the form of disorders of stool, colic, convulsive syndrome.
Physiotherapeutic treatment of anemia in the acute period in newborns is not used.
Alternative treatment of anemia
Undoubtedly, a newborn can not take anything but mother's milk and medicines, because all herbs or alternative medicine can have allergies. Therefore, all alternative means are aimed at ensuring that the young mother who feeds the child follows the advice of alternative medicine, taking some of the funds.
- The main thing for the treatment of anemia is to eat properly for the mother, in order to improve the hemopoiesis to yourself and the baby. Therefore, if a newborn has iron deficiency anemia, then the mother should include in her diet the maximum number of products that contain iron. Such products include: red meat, fish, buckwheat porridge, parsley and spinach, beans, pomegranate. These products must be in the diet.
- Garnet is known for its beneficial effect not only on the vessels, but also on the heart and on the formation of shaped elements. Therefore, to stimulate erythropoiesis, you need to take 150 grams of fresh pomegranate juice, add 50 grams of beet juice and the same amount of carrot juice. Take this vitamin mix four times a day. These products are highly allergenic, so you need to start with a small amount - ten to twenty grams. You can drink for a month.
- Another alternative means - the use of blueberry extract. To do this, take two hundred grams of fresh berries and pour 50 grams of water. You need to insist for two hours, and then whip with a blender. Take Mom on a tablespoon five times a day in intervals between feedings.
Herbal treatment for anemia is also widely used:
- Grass hellebore and yarrow should be taken in equal proportions and pour hot water. This tincture should be allowed to stand for two days, and then you can take a teaspoon in the morning and evening, adding a little lemon juice.
- The rose hips should be filled with hot water and on top and insist for ten to twenty minutes. Take a mom should a glass throughout the day instead of tea. Such tea not only accelerates the synthesis of red blood cells, but also speeds up the work of the liver, which synthesizes proteins, including transferrin. This complex action brings healing closer.
- Leaves of birch should be dried in the oven and make a decoction of them. To do this, take thirty grams of dry leaves and pour a liter of hot water. After insisting after two hours, you can take the decoction on a tablespoon twice a day.
Homeopathic remedies can also be used in the mother:
- Natrium chloratum is a homeopathic medicine based on organic elements. Produced in the form of monopreparation in granules or in combination with succinic acid, which affects the absorption of iron better. The dosage of the drug for the mother depends on the severity of the anemia - at the first degree, two pellets three times, and with a heavier dose, it doubles. There may be side effects in the form of pale skin and mucous baby, which is caused by the drug and will disappear after a few days.
- Poets are a multicomponent drug, which mainly includes different types of antibodies to erythropoietin in homeopathic concentrations. The effect of the drug is to stimulate the work of cells, which are the precursors of red blood cells. Dosage of the drug - 1 tablet per day or six drops once a day. Side effects - increase in body temperature to low-grade figures.
- Kuprum metalikum - homeopathic remedy, which includes copper molecules, which accelerate the maturation of red blood cells in the red bone marrow. The drug is applied to the mother in a dose of one pellet six times a day. Side effects can only be with mum's intolerance, and a newborn can have problems with a stool.
- Galium-Hel is a combined remedy in homeopathy, which is used to treat anemia, which is accompanied by a decrease in the weight of the child, poor appetite, disorders of stools in the form of diarrhea. The drug is dosed five drops three times a day for the mother, since the child is not recommended in the acute period. The first three days you can take five drops every three hours. No side effects were found.