Parasitic dermatological diseases can appear not only in humans, but also in animals. For example, demodecosis in dogs is a fairly common disease that requires compulsory treatment.
How to determine the disease in time? What modern methods help to cope more quickly with pathology?
Causes of demodecosis in dogs
Demodecosis is a parasitic disease that causes a specific kind of tick - Demodex canine. Ticks settle in the sebaceous and sweat glands, hair follicles and some organs in which whole colonies of parasites are formed.
There are several factors that contribute to the onset of the disease:
lack of hygienic care for animals;
general weakness of the dog associated with other diseases;
prolonged fasting or nutritional deficiency;
weak immune defense;
prolonged treatment with antibiotics or other drugs that depress immunity.
The Demodex mite works best in damp conditions, so it multiplies well in damp areas and on wet irritated skin. Demodectic can be combined with such diseases as scabies, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and immunosuppressive conditions.
Symptoms of demodecosis in dogs
The first signs of the disease manifest themselves when the mites begin to multiply. In this case, the symptoms may differ, depending on the clinical form of demodicosis.
The symptoms of the disease are divided into localized (focal), generalized and asymptomatic forms.
Localized demodicosis in dogs is characterized by the appearance on the individual parts of the trunk (more often on the head and limbs) of balding zones. Skin covers on these areas thicken, wrinkle, become grayish or reddish-red, covered with small scaly elements. There may appear pustules - light pink nodular rashes, which eventually darken and degenerate into abscesses. Pustules filled with pus burst, resulting in the release of their contents, which dries up, becoming a gray-brown scab. The damaged skin coarsens and turns red, wrinkles appear on them. In severe cases, general intoxication and exhaustion develops, so that the animal can die.
Generalized demodecosis in dogs occurs with extensive damage to the skin, involving virtually all parts of the body of the animal in the process. The disease penetrates into the deeper layers of tissues, the internal organs are also affected. On the foreground there are signs of general intoxication:
muscular tremor and cramps;
the appearance of foam from the mouth;
If you do not help the dog in the near future, the illness can end in a lethal outcome.
Asymptomatic demodicosis occurs without visible changes on the skin, but with a thorough examination it is possible to detect Demodex mites.
Juvenile demodecosis in dogs
The juvenile form of demodicosis can occur in puppies up to one-year-old age. Puppies become infected from a sick mother in the first days after birth. The main factor contributing to the development of the disease is a weak immune defense, which can not withstand the multiplication of mites-parasites. Treatment of juvenile demodicosis begins only when the animal grows up. In some cases, the disease disappears on its own or when using exclusively external drugs.
A special form of the disease, such as generalized juvenile demodicosis, is also highlighted. This form is considered hereditary and is caused by an autosomal recessive gene. To treat such a disease is difficult and long, in addition, after the cure of such dogs are sterilized.
Complications and consequences
Demodecosis in dogs can be complicated by other dermatological diseases, for example, rosacea, dermatitis or conjunctivitis.
In the generalized form, lesions of the stomach, duodenum, intestine and gallbladder can be observed. In addition, often there are diseases of the endocrine system, there are foci of chronic infection.
With a weak immune system and poor or inadequate treatment, the disease can result in a general lesion of the body and a fatal outcome.
Diagnostics of demodecosis in dogs
Demodecosis in dogs is diagnosed, as a rule, easily. For the correct diagnosis, the following information is taken into account:
the result of a deep scraping from the skin;
analysis of heredity;
clinical symptoms of the disease.
Scraping for demodicosis in dogs is carried out after squeezing the skin, so that the maximum number of mites come out. After this, take the scraping so deeply until a drop of blood appears. During the study, it is possible that the mite appears in the mite and in healthy dogs. However, in diseased animal ticks are not found in the singular, in addition, in conjunction with eggs and immature individuals. If a single insect is present in the material, it sometimes makes sense to scrape it elsewhere, repeatedly.
In advanced cases, as well as in dogs with specific skin integuments (for example, in shar pei), histological analyzes of the biopsy material, which is obtained by biopsy, are often performed.
Differentiate demodecosis in dogs with such pathologies:
mycosis of the skin;
Treatment of demodecosis in dogs
The scheme of treatment of demodicosis in dogs is prescribed depending on the extent of the animal's damage. With a localized course, a spontaneous cure is possible, and with a generalized one, such an outcome is impossible.
First of all attention is paid to competent care, hygiene and living conditions of the animal. The diseased dog should be kept in a warm and dry room, with proper nutrition, which we will talk about later. If the general state of health is unsatisfactory, curing demodicosis will be difficult.
Antibiotics and other tablets from demodicosis for dogs are prescribed only by a veterinarian. Such drugs should act in several ways:
destruction of tick-borne parasite;
restoration of skin;
strengthening of the animal's own immune defense;
acceleration of excretion of toxic substances from the bloodstream;
elimination of unpleasant symptoms.
Tablets from demodecosis for dogs:
Ivermectin is a known antiparasitic agent, is available in tablets of 3 mg, is used to ingest 200 μg / kg of animal weight. Duration of admission is 1 week.
Milbemycin is an anthelmintic preparation used also for getting rid of the Demodex mite. Assigned according to the following scheme:
dogs weighing up to 1 kg - half a pill "for puppies";
Dogs weighing up to 5 kg - a whole tablet "for puppies";
dogs weighing up to 25 kg - a whole tablet "for adults";
dogs up to 50 kg - two tablets "for adults";
dogs up to 70 kg - three tablets "for adults".
Do not use Milbemycin for the treatment of puppies under 14 days and weigh less than 500 grams, as well as in pregnant and weakened animals.
Braveto-insecto-acaricide preparation. It is prescribed before meals at the rate of 25-56 mg / kg dog weight. The tablet is given in a general form, not crushing or breaking. It is acceptable to take this veterinary medication for pregnant and lactating animals.
Penicillin therapy or sulfonamide preparations are also used to treat and prevent purulent infection.
Solutions and drops for dogs from demodicosis:
Bars Spot-on is a veterinary drug for external use, is prescribed for the treatment and prevention of nematodes and demodectic infections. Contains Praziquantel and Ivermectin. The solution is applied to the withers, before exposing the skin. The agent can also be used in puppies over 2 months, from 1 to 5 pipettes, depending on the weight of the animal.
Chlorhexidine (miramistin) is an antiseptic external solution that is used twice a day for washing. The duration of the application is no more than 5 weeks. The drug disinfects and disinfects the skin, promoting rapid healing. Used without serious restrictions.
Injections in demodicosis in dogs:
Aversect is used in the form of a 0.5% solution for animals weighing more than 10 kg, based on a proportion of 0.4 ml per 10 kg. For animals with lower weight, the dosage is calculated as 0.1 ml per kg. The aversect is administered once every 6 days, n / k or / m. The course of treatment is long.
Ivermektim - 1% solution, causing paralysis and death of ticks. It is administered subcutaneously, once, at a dosage rate of 0.2-0.4 ml per 10 kg of body weight. Ivermectim is not used in weakened animals, in puppies up to 6 months, for 14 days before and 14 days after delivery.
Ointment from demodicosis for dogs:
Sulfur ointment - has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiparasitic action. Ointment is applied under the bandages, or in the form of applications once every two days.
Vetabiol is a natural external product derived from coniferous wood. The ointment is applied to the zones affected by demodicosis, every day up to 3 times a day. It is not recommended to cover the area of application with a bandage. Duration of treatment - up to 14 days.
Ichthyol ointment is a local remedy, which is applied under the bandage every 8-10 hours.
Other remedies for demodicosis:
Shampoo "Doctor" (Konvet) is a keratolytic, antipruritic and deodorant preparation that inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and suppresses the development of the inflammatory reaction. Contains benzoyl peroxide. Shampoo is applied to the affected areas, washed off and applied repeatedly. After 10 minutes, finally rinse with clean water. The remedy can be used 2-4 times a week.
"Phytoelita" shampoo for dogs is a natural remedy with insecticidal action. Protects animals from various parasites, eliminates itching and inflammatory reaction. The product is applied to the pre-moisturized skin in a dosage of ½-1 ml per 1 kg of the dog's weight, not allowing entry into the mouth and eyes. Wash off after 4-5 minutes, the hair is dried. In addition, shampoo "Phytoelita" can be treated with animal litter or blankets.
Treatment with hormonal (in particular, corticosteroid) drugs is contraindicated, since such drugs contribute to the aggravation of demodicosis and accelerate its transformation into a purulent form.
A lawyer is a veterinary drug for demodicosis in the form of a solution for external use intended for the treatment and prevention of nematodes, entomoses, sarcopthiasis (including sarcoptic and otodectosis) and subcutaneous mites in dogs.
The advocate is appointed for the treatment and prevention of disease, otodectosis, sarcoptic disease, entomosis, intestinal nematodes (toxocarosis, toxaxaridosis, uncinoria, ankylostomiasis), and also for the prevention of dirofilariasis.
The drug is applied by drop ("spot-on") application on dry undamaged skin. Before use, remove the protective cap from the pipette and place it vertically, pierce the protective membrane of the pipette nozzle (putting the cap on the back side), then remove the cap again. The drug, spreading the wool, is applied to the animal in places inaccessible to licking directly on the skin between the scapula at the base of the neck. When processing large animals, the contents of the pipettes are applied to the skin in 3 to 4 places. The minimum therapeutic dose for dogs is 0.1 ml / kg animal weight (10 mg / kg imidacloprid and 2.5 mg / kg moxidectin).
Ivermek under demodicosis has a pronounced acaricidal effect on the larvae and sexually mature individuals of sarcoptoid and demodectic mites. Ivermectin, which is part of the drug, enhances the production of a neurotransmitter of inhibition-gamma-aminobutyric acid, which leads to impairment of the transfer of impulses from nerve cells to muscle cells, paralysis and parasite death. Panthenol renders wound healing, and lidocaine has a local anesthetic effect with a pronounced antipruritic effect. Ivermectin is practically not absorbed through the skin and has acaricidal effect on it, in hair follicles and sebaceous glands for 5 to 7 days. According to the degree of influence on the organism, ivermek gel refers to low-risk substances. In recommended doses, it does not have local irritating, resorptive-toxic, embryotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects.
With subcutaneous mites, sarcoptosis and notohedrosis, the drug is applied in a thin layer to the previously cleared from scabs and crusts of the affected area at a rate of 0.2-0.3 ml per 1 kg of animal weight, gently rubbing from the periphery to the center with a 1-2 cm borderline healthy skin. To prevent mucus medication, animals are muzzled (or jaws closed with a loop of braid), which is removed after 15-20 minutes after applying the drug. The treatment is carried out 2-4 times with an interval of 5-7 days before the clinical recovery of the animal, which is confirmed by two negative results of the acarological study. Animals with extensive lesions are treated in two doses at intervals of one day, applying the drug to the affected areas first one, and then the other half of the trunk. This is the treatment of demodectic.
Aversectin from demodicosis is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug for intradermal injections, a clear yellow solution in appearance, containing 20% of aversectin C and a solvent.
For the prevention and treatment of hypodermatosis, the drug is administered in a dose of 0.1 ml per 400 kg of body weight of the animal, with other parasitoses at the rate of 0.1 ml of the preparation per 100 kg of body weight (corresponding to 0.2 mg / kg for DV). At the injection site of the drug, a tubercle (pea) with a diameter of about 8 mm is formed, which indicates the correctness of the drug administration. At the time of injection, do not move the nozzle relative to the injection site to avoid injury.
Usually does not cause side effects. In no case should the drug be taken with hypersensitivity to the main components of the medication. This is a serious tool that requires special consultation before use. The therapeutic effect of treating demodicosis in this way is achieved in a short time.
Vitamins in demodicosis in dogs
The advisability of using vitamins in demodicosis in dogs is controversial: some experts prescribe vitamin preparations to all animals without exception, and others - categorically against it, considering that such funds favor the development of ticks. Meanwhile, vitamins uniquely contribute to strengthening the immunity of dogs, which increases the resistance of the body to infection.
Among the most common vitamin preparations prescribed for demodicosis, we can distinguish the following:
"Vetzim" is a vitamin tablet preparation based on brewer's yeast. Contains vitamins of group B and E. "Vetzim" has practically no contraindications and can be applied for a long time. Usually prescribed from 2 to 4 tablets per day for a month.
"Midivet" is a modern preparation-adaptogen containing a large number of essential amino acids, fatty acids, macro- and microelements. "Midivet" accelerates the elimination of toxins, inhibits the growth of bacteria and viruses, activates skin regeneration, strengthens immune defense, improves liver function. The drug is used for 1-4 drops per 1 kg of weight for 10 days. After 1 month, treatment can be repeated.
Before giving the dog vitamin preparations, be sure to make sure that the animal is not allergic to the components of the chosen remedy.
The most effective folk remedy against demodecosis is birch tar. It is evenly distributed over the affected skin and left for 3 hours.
In addition, you can prepare various ointments at home:
mixture of pure turpentine with linseed oil or animal fat in a proportion of 1: 2;
1 part of celandine juice with 4 parts of Vaseline;
powdered sulfur with melted fat (1: 2);
a mixture of equal parts of melted fat, grated green soap, powdered sulfur and birch tar;
a mixture of dried chopped herb celandine with fatty cream;
a mixture of equal parts of ground bay leaf and animal fat;
five parts mustard oil and 1 part chopped garlic;
one part of the ground root of elecampane, two parts of birch tar and 4 parts of melted butter;
two parts of melted fat, as much grated laundry soap, one part of powdered sulfur and one part of birch tar.
Also, wounds can be washed with infusions of plants such as buckthorn bark, elecampane root, grass of the carpet, grass of a lamb.
Nutrition for dogs with demodectic
Treatment of a disease caused by a Demodex mite should be complex. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account such an important factor as nutrition. The dog should be fed fully, with natural and fresh food, without chemicals - flavor enhancers, dyes, etc. It is better if the food consists of meat products (can boiled), as well as eggs, dairy products, vegetables, cereals.
Do not make the dog's food greasy, salty, and also add vodka to it. It is allowed to add vitamins to the feed, after consultation with a veterinarian.
Some manufacturers produce special dry food for the treatment of skin diseases in dogs. Buying such a product, you need to make sure of the following points:
good quality of feed and reputation of the manufacturer;
positive feedback from customers;
lack of chemical ingredients in the product;
If the dog's diet is selected correctly, the chances of a successful cure for demodectic disease are significantly increased.
Methods for the prevention of demodicosis include:
restriction of communication of the dog with other diseased animals, as well as with stray dogs;
adherence to the rules of dog hygiene, timely washing and combing;
prevention of uncontrolled use of medicines, especially corticosteroid hormones;
high-grade vitaminized food;
a thorough examination of the animals before the proposed knitting.
Also one of the options for prevention is the vaccine against demodicosis in dogs. Influence on animal immunity and stimulation of antiparasitic protection are the main purposes of vaccination. As a rule, veterinary drug Immunoparasitane, consisting of parasite elements, is used for vaccinations. After the introduction of the vaccine, the immune system works and suppresses the development and reproduction of ticks. Immunoparasitol is used according to a special scheme, once every 5 days, in / m.
The prognosis can be favorable for localized demodicosis (90% recovery), and doubtful - in generalized form. The outcome of the generalized disease depends on the speed of spread of the parasite and on the degree of confrontation of the animal's body. Also an important factor is the timeliness of contacting a veterinarian for help. In neglected cases, due to excessive exhaustion and intoxication, the dog may die.
Demodecosis in dogs is a serious ailment that can provoke the development of very sad consequences. This happens when the pet's health status is not paid enough attention. If you follow the preventive measures and visit a veterinarian on time, the likelihood of demodectic disease can be minimized.
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