What tests are taken during pregnancy?

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 23.04.2024

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About what tests are taken during pregnancy, the future mother will find out in the women's consultation when she becomes registered. To hand over analyzes it is necessary not once, throughout all term of pregnancy as on all terms of pregnancy the list of analyzes different.

To understand all the analyzes and their sequence, compile a calendar of basic analyzes. Due to the surrender of a large number of tests, many future mothers are slow to register in a women's consultation, which is very reckless and dangerous. A disrespectful attitude can not only harm women's health, but also cause violations in the formation of the fetus.

Upon the fact of registering a woman's consultation with a doctor, it is necessary to submit basic tests:

  • blood analysis of the general, blood test for sugar, the percentage of platelets;
  • urine analysis, urinalysis for the presence of protein;
  • analysis of urine on bacteria;
  • blood test for the determination of the blood group and Rh factor;
  • blood test for the definition of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis;
  • a blood test for antibodies and infectious diseases;
  • smear of the vaginal mucosa on cytology.

These tests are taken from 5-11 weeks of pregnancy, but many of these tests will be taken repeatedly during the pregnancy care, especially important dates for this are 19-21 weeks, 29-30 weeks. To determine the genetic abnormalities of the fetus, genetic analysis is carried out at 11-13 and 16-20 weeks of fetal development.

Women with perfect strong health in our time, almost no. If the future mother has chronic pathologies, complications from organs and systems during pregnancy, then it will be necessary to take tests more often. To prevent complications during pregnancy, you need to register as soon as possible after confirmation of pregnancy, but not later than the third month after successful conception.

Compulsory tests during pregnancy

Compulsory tests during pregnancy are carried out both at the time of arrival of the future mother on the account, and further in certain stages of pregnancy. This is necessary as a method of monitoring the health of mother and future child.

Compulsory tests that a woman must take when registering a pregnancy:

  1. Measure the size of the pelvic bones. This will give an idea of the size of the pelvis and help avoid complications during pregnancy and childbirth if the bones form a too narrow or flat cavity of the pelvis.
  2. Measure the weight. This is a necessary measure for predicting possible complications (gestosis, small or excessive fetal weight), assessing the condition of the pregnant woman as a whole. Weighed at each visit to the doctor in the women's consultation.
  3. Measure blood pressure. This will help to prevent the risk of developing gestosis, hypertensive crisis, VSD. Carried out at each visit of a woman's consultation.
  4. Fence material for a general blood test. Subsequently, it is surrendered at 25, 32, 38 weeks. Allows you to monitor internal processes in the body, prevent the development of anemia, reveal a hidden inflammation.
  5. Collection of material for determining blood type and rhesus.
  6. The sampling of the material for determining the level of sugar in the blood.
  7. Collection of material for the determination of blood coagulability (coagulogram).
  8. Blood sampling for syphilis analysis.
  9. Blood sampling for HIV testing.
  10. Blood sampling for analysis for the presence of HBs-antigen.
  11. Conduct a general urine test.
  12. Taking material from the vaginal mucosa to cytology.
  13. Taking material from the urethral canal and the anus, if there is a chance of an STD.
  14. Carrying out bacteriological sowing of a smear from the vagina on STDs.
  15. Tank sowing from the nasal cavity for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus.
  16. Collection of stool specimens for the determination of the presence of helminth eggs. It is carried out once, at registration in female consultation.
  17. Carrying out the SPL. Conducted to confirm intrauterine pregnancy, to clarify the place of attachment of the placenta, determine its maturity, diagnosis of visible genetic abnormalities, fetal anomalies, monitoring the growth and development of the fetus and other biophysical features. Diagnosis is performed using the ultrasound device at 10-14, 20-24, 32-36 weeks.

Compulsory tests during pregnancy should be conducted completely free of charge in public medical institutions. If, for one reason or another, there is no trust in the state authorities, all necessary tests can be taken in private clinics that provide laboratory and diagnostic services, but for a palpable payment.


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Schedule of tests for pregnancy

The schedule of pregnancy tests for all expectant mothers with uncomplicated pregnancy is the same, the differences can only be in case of complications or disputed test data.

At 0-12 weeks of pregnancy the woman is registered on the account in the female consultation and the following tests are appointed:

  • Delivery of urine pregnant for general analysis and verification of the functionality of the kidneys.
  • Pass the analysis for TORCH-infection.
  • Carrying out an analysis to identify urogenital infections according to the doctor's testimony.
  • Taking a vaginal smear on the microflora.
  • Conducting a general, biochemical blood test, determining the level of sugar in the blood, determining blood coagulability.
  • Determination of the blood group and rhesus of the pregnant woman.
  • Conducting the analysis for AIDS (HIV), hepatitis B and C, syphilis.
  • It is also recommended to visit the specialized doctors - dentist, therapist, ENT doctor - to treat possible diseases and not complicate the course of pregnancy.

At 12-14 weeks of the future mother, the first ultrasound examination is appointed, on which the gestation period is determined, how many fetuses are in the uterus, and whether the future child has vices.

At 16-18 weeks, a "triple test" is prescribed - to detect chromosomal abnormalities and other abnormalities of development in the fetus. Determine the level of AFP, hCG, NE. If necessary, give an additional direction for amniocentesis, if there is a suspicion of severe pathology of the fetus.

At 24-26 weeks, a second ultrasound examination is conducted to obtain more information about the structure of the baby, determine the sex, position, presentation, assess the placenta. Also, the expectant mother should donate blood for a common analysis, hemoglobin, ferritin.

At 33-34 weeks, the dopplerography (according to the medical prescription) is performed - to assess the state of the vessels of the uterus body, the blood circulation of the placenta and the fetus. This is necessary for the timely detection of intrauterine oxygen starvation in the baby. Also shown is the cardiotocography (according to the medical prescription). This study allows you to assess the synchrony of uterine contractions and fetal heart attacks.

At 35-36 weeks, tests are resumed, as in the first half of the variability - on the detection of syphilis, AIDS, torch infection, a vaginal smear is also given for microflora, a biochemical and general blood test, a general urine test. An ultrasound examination is performed to calculate the approximate weight of the child, the volume of amniotic fluid, and assess the placenta condition. If the pregnancy proceeds physiologically, the expectant mother must visit the doctor every week before delivery and take urine for a general analysis.

Analyzes in the 1st trimester of pregnancy

Analyzes in the first trimester of pregnancy, when registering for the account in a women's consultation should be handed in as soon as possible. At the first visit to the gynecologist the following tests are prescribed:

  • To donate blood for AIDS. To donate blood for the detection of syphilis.
  • Become a blood test for the detection of hepatitis B and C.
  • To donate blood for the maintenance of hormones (the "hormonal mirror").
  • To donate blood to the blood group and rhesus. If it turns out that a pregnant woman has a negative Rhesus, and the child's father is positive, the expectant mother will need to take blood for antibodies every two weeks.
  • To donate blood for biochemistry.
  • Pass a smear on the microflora of the vagina.
  • Hand in the urine for a general analysis.
  • The direction for ultrasound is prescribed on the 10-12th week of pregnancy in order to have an idea of the number of fetuses in the uterus in order to exclude possible pathologies of the fetus and the reproductive system of the mother, exclude chromosomal abnormalities, as well as ectopic pregnancy.
  • You also need to pass tests for TORCH-infection (rubella, herpes, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia).
  • Before each visit to the doctor, you need to take urine for a general analysis to monitor the urinary system.
  • Pass the ECG.
  • It is also necessary to consult other related specialists - therapist, oculist, ENT doctor, dentist.

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Analyzes in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy

Analyzes in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy are given in certain weeks, and the second trimester begins with 13 and lasts for 24 weeks.

At 14-18 weeks AFP blood test is assigned to detect fetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Down syndrome, neural tube pathology, hydrocephalus, Morphan syndrome, acromegaly and other severe pathologies).

At 24-26 weeks, it is necessary to undergo a second planned examination on an ultrasound machine. This is necessary to refute the presence of anomalies of organs and systems, it is also possible to determine the sex of the future baby, assess the placenta, the location of its attachment.

In addition, in the second trimester, it is necessary to take other tests that show the state of health of the mother and child - donate blood to determine the level of hemoglobin so as not to miss the development of anemia. And before each hike in the women's consultation you need to take urine for a general analysis to monitor the kidneys and not miss a hidden inflammatory process.

According to the doctor's testimony, dopplerography can be prescribed to assess the blood circulation of the uterus, to look through the vessels of the placenta and the vessels of the fetus. If necessary, then ECG, on the recommendation of a doctor at the end of the third trimester appoint cardiotocography (to assess the rhythm of contractions of the uterus and palpitation of the unborn child).

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Analyzes in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy

Analyzes in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy basically duplicate the tests that the expectant mother gave in 1 trimester. These are HIV tests, for antibodies to the syphilis causative agent, for hepatitis of group B and C. A general blood test is also required, according to which it is possible to judge all the physiological changes in the woman's body and control the level of hemoglobin.

To pass urine on the general analysis it is necessary before each visit of the doctor supervising pregnancy. On the composition of urine, it is possible to identify at an early stage some diseases. For example, if you identify protein in the urine, you can judge nephropathy, gestosis, diabetes mellitus. These diseases complicate the course of pregnancy and can threaten the life of the unborn child.

Also, in the third trimester of pregnancy, the expectant mother should undergo a gynecological examination, in order to take the material for a bacteriological smear. At 38-40 weeks, another gynecological examination is performed to examine the cervix. According to the state of the cervix, the gynecologist makes a conclusion about the approximate dates of childbirth.

At each visit to the doctor of the future mother, it is necessary to measure the pressure, the abdominal circumference, the height of the bottom of the uterus, listen to the fetal heartbeat, weigh and control the process of gaining weight in time to suspect gestosis or fading of the fetus.

Dopplerography is performed only in cases when there is a suspicion of overstretching of pregnancy. With the help of this method, you receive information about the state of the blood circulation in the uterus, the blood flow of the placenta and the blood flow of the unborn child, and most importantly - in this way you can find out whether the fetus does not suffer from oxygen starvation.

Cardiotocography is also performed according to the indications, if there is a suspicion of fetal repetition. With the help of this method, the state of the future child is also evaluated to exclude oxygen starvation.

On ultrasound calculate the weight of the child, make a conclusion about the position, presentation, the condition of the placenta, the absence of developmental abnormalities in the fetus.

trusted-source[7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13]

Analyzes for men during pregnancy

Analyzes for men during pregnancy are not too different from the tests when planning pregnancy. A man who does not even suspect this can often be the bearer of an infection, so that the disease is not passed on to the wife or the future child, he also must timely take all the necessary tests.

  • If there is no data on the blood group and the rhesus of a man, then he must pass these tests (if a man has a positive Rh, his mother is negative, then the risk of a rhesus mismatch in a fetus and a pregnant one is high, and this burdens the course of pregnancy).
  • A man should also take an analysis for the presence of TORCH infections and other dangerous hidden infections, even if the analysis was performed before the conception of the child. It is especially important if the couple continues to lead a sexual life during pregnancy and does not use contact contraceptives.
  • Also, a man must repeatedly donate blood for HIV and AIDS during his wife's pregnancy.
  • It is also necessary to pass a smear on the bacterial from the nose (to exclude the possibility of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and, if necessary, treat the infection).
  • If a genetic test was not performed before pregnancy, then, according to the doctor's testimony, carry it along with the pregnant woman.
  • Also, a man needs to have a fluorography prior to conception and six months after conception to exclude the possibility of pulmonary tuberculosis and infection of the mother and the unborn child.

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Norms of analysis during pregnancy

Norms of tests during pregnancy suggest that the fetal bearing takes place physiologically. Do not doubt that the results of the tests are good, you need to know their norms. It is impossible to fully understand the indicators of the analyzes, it is better to let the doctor do it.

According to the results of a smear from the vagina, it is allowed to increase the white blood cells in the mucosa - 15-20 in the field of vision. The given analysis is given at the primary reference in female consultation, on 30 and 36-37 weeks. Also, the analysis must be given if worried pain in the lower abdomen and altered discharge from the vagina of an unusual color and odor.

Normally, the sample of urine during pregnancy should not contain protein, sugar, bacteria, mucus, leukocytes 1-2 are allowed in the field of vision, erythrocytes - 1 in the field of vision, epithelial cells - 1-2 in the field of vision, urine density - 1010- 1030. Increasing the level of salt components in the urine indicates problems of the genitourinary system. Ketone bodies in the urine indicate the onset of toxicosis.

  • The norm of erythrocytes in the blood test is 3.8-5.5 per 10 12 / l.
  • The norm of hemoglobin is 120-140 g / l.
  • The norm of the hematocrit is 35-45%
  • The norm of the width of distribution of erythrocytes is 11.5-14.5%
  • The norm of platelets is 180-320 at 10 9 g / l.
  • The norm of leukocytes is 4,0-9,0 at 10 9 / l.
  • The norm of lymphocytes is 25-40%
  • Monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, immature cells 5-10%
  • The norm of granulocytes is 47-72%
  • The norm of monocytes is 4-10%
  • ESR - 35-45 mm / h

Norms for a smear from the vagina to determine the microflora.

  • Epithelial cells - up to 15 in the field of vision, an increase in the number indicates inflammation.
  • Leukocyte cells - up to 7-10 in the field of view.
  • Erythrocyte cells - up to 2 in the field of view.
  • Bacterial environment in the smear should not be, a meager sticks medium is permissible.
  • Slime in a smear from the vagina should be in a moderate volume.
  • Gonococci, Trichomonas, Chlamydia, fungi in the smear are a deviation from the norm.

Explanation of tests during pregnancy

Deciphering the tests during pregnancy makes it possible to gradually observe the changes that occur in the body of a woman throughout the gestation period.

Blood test.

  • The norms of hemoglobin in the blood of a pregnant woman range from 110-140 g / l. Decrease in indicators indicates anemia.
  • The percentage of hematocrit should not be less than 35-45%, with a low indicator determines the degree of lack of iron in the blood.
  • Erythrocyte mass. The content of red blood cells in the norm of 3.5-5.0 per 10¹² l. In pregnant women, this indicator is slightly lower.
  • Percentage ratio of leukocytes. Normally the percentage of white blood cells is 4-10.5 by 10 9 liters. In the third trimester, the indicator may slightly increase, but this is within the norm.
  • The percentage of lymphocytes is a quarter (25%).
  • The percentage of basophils is 0.2%
  • Percentage of eosinophils 1.5%
  • The percentage of monocytes is 4.5%
  • The percentage of platelets 180-320 per 10 9 liters.
  • ESR in pregnant women is increased, but this is the norm.

Particular attention must be paid to such indicators in blood analysis as:

  • Percentage of glucose. For a pregnant woman, the norm is 3.3-4.4 mmol / l.
  • The percentage of proteins: albumins is 25-50 g / l.
  • The percentage of nitrogenous bases: urea - 2.5-8.3 saline / l. And creatinine 45-115 μmol / l.
  • Percentage of enzymes: alkaline phosphatase (APF) 25-90 IU.

Abnormalities in the analysis of urine during pregnancy can be as follows:

  • A small content of protein fractions in the urine is permissible, not more than 0.033 g / l. At 32 weeks of gestation and more protein in the urine testifies to the pathology of the kidneys and can be the cause of depression of the function of the placenta, birth before the term, stillbirth.
  • The presence of bacteria. The frequent deviation in pregnant women, indicates an inflammatory process in the kidneys.
  • The presence of phosphate in the urine is minimal, this is due to the process of development of the fetal skeleton. If the percentage of salts in the urine is very high, then this indicates problems with the kidneys.

If any deviations in the pregnancy are found in the tests, a special treatment and supervision is required from the specialist. In some cases, it is better to lie on the preservation and until delivery to be under the constant supervision of doctors.

trusted-source[19], [20], [21], [22], [23]

Bad tests during pregnancy

Bad tests during pregnancy is not a sentence at all. If the analyzes do not comply with the established standards, you may need to consult a related specialist and have additional treatment. In order to understand which indicators are dangerous and which are not, you need to know in which trimester or on what week of pregnancy the changes were recorded.

In the first trimester, when the expectant mother gives the greatest number of tests, many questions arise if the results do not meet the standards. So, according to the results of a general blood test, you can find out about hidden inflammations, a decrease in hemoglobin, and this can lead to oxygen starvation of the fetus. In such situations prescribe iron preparations and vitamin diet. With a decrease in the number of platelets also need to identify the cause and prescribe treatment, as the probability of miscarriage increases.

If there are deviations in the biochemical analysis - the appearance of sugar in the blood, you need to seek advice from an endocrinologist who will prescribe a special treatment. The appearance in the urine of protein, bacteria, erythrocytes, white blood cells also requires urgent treatment - this is the only way to exclude serious complications.

The results of the tests, indicating the developmental fetus, will need to be repeated after a while. A special group of risk consists of families in which such anomalies are hereditary, or there are already children with disabilities in the family.

Detection of bacteria in the smear from the vagina suggests that you need to adjust the microflora and undergo a specific treatment to prepare the birth canal and not infect the child.

Positive tests for TORCH infection, hepatitis, syphilis, HIV require special precautions for pregnancy management and corrective treatment. In many cases, with the correct tactics of doctors and competent management of pregnancy, healthy, children without pathologies of development are born.

trusted-source[24], [25], [26]

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