Schedule of tests for pregnancy
The schedule of pregnancy tests for all expectant mothers with uncomplicated pregnancy is the same, the differences can only be in case of complications or disputed test data.
At 0-12 weeks of pregnancy the woman is registered on the account in the female consultation and the following tests are appointed:
- Delivery of urine pregnant for general analysis and verification of the functionality of the kidneys.
- Pass the analysis for TORCH-infection.
- Carrying out an analysis to identify urogenital infections according to the doctor's testimony.
- Taking a vaginal smear on the microflora.
- Conducting a general, biochemical blood test, determining the level of sugar in the blood, determining blood coagulability.
- Determination of the blood group and rhesus of the pregnant woman.
- Conducting the analysis for AIDS (HIV), hepatitis B and C, syphilis.
- It is also recommended to visit the specialized doctors - dentist, therapist, ENT doctor - to treat possible diseases and not complicate the course of pregnancy.
At 12-14 weeks of the future mother, the first ultrasound examination is appointed, on which the gestation period is determined, how many fetuses are in the uterus, and whether the future child has vices.
At 16-18 weeks, a "triple test" is prescribed - to detect chromosomal abnormalities and other abnormalities of development in the fetus. Determine the level of AFP, hCG, NE. If necessary, give an additional direction for amniocentesis, if there is a suspicion of severe pathology of the fetus.
At 24-26 weeks, a second ultrasound examination is conducted to obtain more information about the structure of the baby, determine the sex, position, presentation, assess the placenta. Also, the expectant mother should donate blood for a common analysis, hemoglobin, ferritin.
At 33-34 weeks, the dopplerography (according to the medical prescription) is performed - to assess the state of the vessels of the uterus body, the blood circulation of the placenta and the fetus. This is necessary for the timely detection of intrauterine oxygen starvation in the baby. Also shown is the cardiotocography (according to the medical prescription). This study allows you to assess the synchrony of uterine contractions and fetal heart attacks.
At 35-36 weeks, tests are resumed, as in the first half of the variability - on the detection of syphilis, AIDS, torch infection, a vaginal smear is also given for microflora, a biochemical and general blood test, a general urine test. An ultrasound examination is performed to calculate the approximate weight of the child, the volume of amniotic fluid, and assess the placenta condition. If the pregnancy proceeds physiologically, the expectant mother must visit the doctor every week before delivery and take urine for a general analysis.
Analyzes in the 1st trimester of pregnancy
Analyzes in the first trimester of pregnancy, when registering for the account in a women's consultation should be handed in as soon as possible. At the first visit to the gynecologist the following tests are prescribed:
- To donate blood for AIDS. To donate blood for the detection of syphilis.
- Become a blood test for the detection of hepatitis B and C.
- To donate blood for the maintenance of hormones (the "hormonal mirror").
- To donate blood to the blood group and rhesus. If it turns out that a pregnant woman has a negative Rhesus, and the child's father is positive, the expectant mother will need to take blood for antibodies every two weeks.
- To donate blood for biochemistry.
- Pass a smear on the microflora of the vagina.
- Hand in the urine for a general analysis.
- The direction for ultrasound is prescribed on the 10-12th week of pregnancy in order to have an idea of the number of fetuses in the uterus in order to exclude possible pathologies of the fetus and the reproductive system of the mother, exclude chromosomal abnormalities, as well as ectopic pregnancy.
- You also need to pass tests for TORCH-infection (rubella, herpes, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia).
- Before each visit to the doctor, you need to take urine for a general analysis to monitor the urinary system.
- Pass the ECG.
- It is also necessary to consult other related specialists - therapist, oculist, ENT doctor, dentist.
Analyzes in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy
Analyzes in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy are given in certain weeks, and the second trimester begins with 13 and lasts for 24 weeks.
At 14-18 weeks AFP blood test is assigned to detect fetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Down syndrome, neural tube pathology, hydrocephalus, Morphan syndrome, acromegaly and other severe pathologies).
At 24-26 weeks, it is necessary to undergo a second planned examination on an ultrasound machine. This is necessary to refute the presence of anomalies of organs and systems, it is also possible to determine the sex of the future baby, assess the placenta, the location of its attachment.
In addition, in the second trimester, it is necessary to take other tests that show the state of health of the mother and child - donate blood to determine the level of hemoglobin so as not to miss the development of anemia. And before each hike in the women's consultation you need to take urine for a general analysis to monitor the kidneys and not miss a hidden inflammatory process.
According to the doctor's testimony, dopplerography can be prescribed to assess the blood circulation of the uterus, to look through the vessels of the placenta and the vessels of the fetus. If necessary, then ECG, on the recommendation of a doctor at the end of the third trimester appoint cardiotocography (to assess the rhythm of contractions of the uterus and palpitation of the unborn child).
Analyzes in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy
Analyzes in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy basically duplicate the tests that the expectant mother gave in 1 trimester. These are HIV tests, for antibodies to the syphilis causative agent, for hepatitis of group B and C. A general blood test is also required, according to which it is possible to judge all the physiological changes in the woman's body and control the level of hemoglobin.
To pass urine on the general analysis it is necessary before each visit of the doctor supervising pregnancy. On the composition of urine, it is possible to identify at an early stage some diseases. For example, if you identify protein in the urine, you can judge nephropathy, gestosis, diabetes mellitus. These diseases complicate the course of pregnancy and can threaten the life of the unborn child.
Also, in the third trimester of pregnancy, the expectant mother should undergo a gynecological examination, in order to take the material for a bacteriological smear. At 38-40 weeks, another gynecological examination is performed to examine the cervix. According to the state of the cervix, the gynecologist makes a conclusion about the approximate dates of childbirth.
At each visit to the doctor of the future mother, it is necessary to measure the pressure, the abdominal circumference, the height of the bottom of the uterus, listen to the fetal heartbeat, weigh and control the process of gaining weight in time to suspect gestosis or fading of the fetus.
Dopplerography is performed only in cases when there is a suspicion of overstretching of pregnancy. With the help of this method, you receive information about the state of the blood circulation in the uterus, the blood flow of the placenta and the blood flow of the unborn child, and most importantly - in this way you can find out whether the fetus does not suffer from oxygen starvation.
Cardiotocography is also performed according to the indications, if there is a suspicion of fetal repetition. With the help of this method, the state of the future child is also evaluated to exclude oxygen starvation.
On ultrasound calculate the weight of the child, make a conclusion about the position, presentation, the condition of the placenta, the absence of developmental abnormalities in the fetus.
Analyzes for men during pregnancy
Analyzes for men during pregnancy are not too different from the tests when planning pregnancy. A man who does not even suspect this can often be the bearer of an infection, so that the disease is not passed on to the wife or the future child, he also must timely take all the necessary tests.
- If there is no data on the blood group and the rhesus of a man, then he must pass these tests (if a man has a positive Rh, his mother is negative, then the risk of a rhesus mismatch in a fetus and a pregnant one is high, and this burdens the course of pregnancy).
- A man should also take an analysis for the presence of TORCH infections and other dangerous hidden infections, even if the analysis was performed before the conception of the child. It is especially important if the couple continues to lead a sexual life during pregnancy and does not use contact contraceptives.
- Also, a man must repeatedly donate blood for HIV and AIDS during his wife's pregnancy.
- It is also necessary to pass a smear on the bacterial from the nose (to exclude the possibility of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and, if necessary, treat the infection).
- If a genetic test was not performed before pregnancy, then, according to the doctor's testimony, carry it along with the pregnant woman.
- Also, a man needs to have a fluorography prior to conception and six months after conception to exclude the possibility of pulmonary tuberculosis and infection of the mother and the unborn child.