Medical expert of the article

Obstetrician-gynecologist, fertility specialist

Menstruation during pregnancy

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 18.10.2021

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As a rule, a woman learns about pregnancy not earlier than the fourth, or even in the fifth week of the term. One of the signs of conception is the absence of menstruation. But there are situations when regular menstruation occurs during pregnancy, which are scanty, shorter in duration.

The cause of bleeding can be ectopic pregnancy, prerequisites for miscarriage, hormonal failure, overstrain, injury or infectious inflammatory processes in the genital area. Sometimes it happens that in the female body continues to produce eggs in the presence of one fertilized. A rather rare phenomenon characteristic of the first month of pregnancy is not explained by the egg reaching the site of implantation.

The presence of menstruation during pregnancy is a reason to visit a gynecologist. Any type of bleeding is not the norm, especially when accompanied by pulling pain, a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen. If such symptoms do not disappear, but vice versa only increases, then an ambulance should be called.

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Why do periods start during pregnancy?

The presence of menstruation at the beginning of pregnancy is considered to be quite common. Fertilization occurs in the middle of the cycle, and the fertilized egg reaches “its place” in seven to fifteen days. Changes at the hormonal level have not yet had time to occur, which is why menstruation begins during pregnancy. In the next month, as a rule, the situation is getting better.

There are cases when hormonal background is debugged, the embryo develops, and menstruation still appear. These detours from the norm, which are not a threat of termination of pregnancy, they are detected for three to four months after conception with a decrease in estrogen background.

In the theory of obstetrics there is evidence of the simultaneous maturation of two eggs belonging to different ovaries. When this happens, fertilization of one egg and rejection of the second, causing menstruation during pregnancy. This situation is a very rare and complex phenomenon.

It is important to remember that bleeding is also a symptom of spontaneous abortion, so if you have heavy bleeding and severe pain, immediately seek medical attention.

During pregnancy went monthly

The life originating inside a woman cardinally changes not only its physiology. A future mother develops a special feeling - the instinct of preservation, which dictates a woman's behavior and eating habits, warning against danger. Therefore, it is perfectly understandable female concern if during pregnancy went monthly. The stories of girlfriends that someone of your friends also had discharge during the entire pregnancy should not be a criterion for you. If menstruation occurs at any stage of embryo formation, seek professional advice.

Monthly during pregnancy in the early period represent the maximum danger. Common causes of bleeding - hyperandrogenism ("going off" male hormone) or progesterone deficiency successfully and quickly solved by the appointment of special drugs. More difficult situations, like an ectopic pregnancy, require immediate response and prompt intervention.

On the other hand, the detection of bleeding at the beginning of gestation may indicate the process of attachment of the ovum to the endometrium of the uterus, which does not pose a threat of miscarriage.

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If during pregnancy there are monthly

Egg cell maturation occurs monthly in the female body. In the absence of fertilization, it is destroyed. Together with blood, the remains of the egg cell and endometrial particles, which form the walls of the uterus, are removed. If conception has arrived, progesterone is being actively produced. The function of the hormone is to activate the growth of the endometrium to secure the embryo and prevent contractile uterine activity.

Blood discharge during gestation is not a menstruation. The factors affecting the appearance of spotting or more pronounced secretions may be pathologies, hormonal "malfunctions". Also, the cause of the discharge is the detachment of the ovum and the possibility of miscarriage.

Disruption of progesterone production is a common reason for which menstruation occurs during pregnancy. A small amount of hormone contributes to the appearance of blood. In this condition, the doctor prescribes hormone-containing drugs that prevent the threat of miscarriage.

When two embryos are born, sometimes one of them is rejected (developmental pathologies, improper implantation, etc.) and, as a result, menstruation during pregnancy.

Days of pregnancy during pregnancy

The appearance of bleeding on menstruation days during pregnancy at any stage of gestation requires consultation, sometimes examination by a specialist. Women most often encounter such a phenomenon in the first trimester, while the fourth, fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth, and thirteenth weeks are considered dangerous. The presence of blood is associated with the discharge of the ovum and the probability of miscarriage. The reason for this may be: 

  • the lack of progesterone, preserving pregnancy at the initial stage, in case of malfunctioning of the "yellow body"; 
  • the increase in the number of male hormone androgen, provoking the discharge of the ovum; 
  • the egg is attached in the wrong place (in the presence of fibroids, endometriosis); 
  • stopping the development of the embryo, the appearance of malformations, genetic pathologies; 
  • ectopic pregnancy.

Why is sick during menstruation during pregnancy?

Toxicosis is one of the symptoms of the onset of conception, which half of pregnant women have to live with. But is it always a safe signal? As it turned out, nausea can indicate a number of pathologies: 

  • toxicosis and missed abortion - a sudden change of state from severe nausea and weakness to full vitality at the beginning of the term may indicate the death of the embryo. Sometimes joining the pain of the lower abdomen and bloody discharge; 
  • toxicosis and ectopic pregnancy - the development of a fetus outside the uterus has the same symptoms as a normal pregnancy. A woman feels sick during menstruation during pregnancy as a result of rupture of the fallopian tube; 
  • toxicosis and multiple pregnancies - one of the embryos is rejected (more often in the form of genetic disorders, malformations), and the second continues to develop.

If you feel sick and vaginal discharge appears, it is best to visit a gynecologist to avoid adverse effects. Timely admission to the hospital will bring moral calm and allow you to save the pregnancy with possible deviations.

Menstruation during pregnancy is a pathological process that can be called rather threatening bleeding with a possible spontaneous miscarriage. A serious signal should not be ignored, especially if the expectant mother herself has the slightest anxiety.

Signs of menstruation during pregnancy

"Fetal ablution" or "color pregnancy" - medical terms that describe the appearance of menstruation after conception. According to experts, menstruations in the first months of pregnancy sometimes occur, but acquire their own distinctive features. Cycle failure may occur (lengthening / shortening), bleeding becomes scarcer (less often more abundant).

Sometimes signs of menstruation during pregnancy do not have significant differences with the usual menstruation - nipple engorgement, mood swings, changes in taste preferences, headache, weakness and drowsiness, increased or decreased appetite, etc.

If you have a suspicion of a possible pregnancy, you can use the test. Bleeding will not affect the accuracy, as the pregnancy test is sensitive to hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), the level of which increases in the blood and then in the urine. Home testing is more likely than the longer the gestation period and depends on the sensitivity of the test.


The first periods during pregnancy

Low hormone levels are a major cause of bleeding after conception. Who among women today can boast a normal hormonal background? A small, painless, first periods during pregnancy can be observed when driving. Such discharge often ends at night and is not a cause for concern. A woman is recommended to consult a gynecologist.

Causes of menstruation through the fetus: 

  • lack of progesterone in violation of the functions of the corpus luteum; 
  • the phenomenon of hyperandrogenism - detachment of the ovum as a result of the production of large quantities of the male hormone androgen; 
  • incorrect attachment of the egg - “frozen” pregnancy, genetic type disorders that cause miscarriage; 
  • development of pregnancy outside the uterus.

Pregnancy freezing is a condition in which the embryo stops developing and dies. There are scant, spotting.

Ectopic pregnancy is possible with a possible rupture of the fallopian tube, therefore, if the first menstruation occurs during pregnancy, you should contact an obstetrician-gynecologist.

What are the periods during pregnancy?

In the process of implantation of the ovum into the uterine cavity, endometrial integrity is sometimes impaired, resulting in bleeding. Such discharge lasts until the full location of the eggs in the uterine cavity.

What are the periods during pregnancy? Sometimes there is scanty dark red or brown discharge. As practice shows, the so-called “fetal washing” takes place on its own, which can be of a slight painful nature.

The cause of the bloody type of discharge can be physiological characteristics - the presence of doublings, pronounced saddle-likeness of the uterus, etc. The presence of abundant red blood with painful sensations of a pulling, cramping type is an alarming signal of an abortion.

Whatever the monthly during pregnancy, you should consult with a specialist who will appoint a series of examinations, or if necessary, immediately call emergency medical care.

Abundant periods during pregnancy

The presence of bleeding in the period after conception is not the norm. It is important for the future mother to understand that a few drops on the laundry result from the attachment of the ovum to the wall of the uterus, but abundant menstruation during pregnancy is a pathology. Bleeding factors: 

  • miscarriage - scarlet, copious discharge with aching, cramping pains in the abdomen and lower back appear; 
  • fading of pregnancy - the cause may be the presence of genetic abnormalities of the fetus, and the symptoms are the same as with miscarriage; 
  • pregnancy outside the uterus - is characterized by heavy bleeding, difficult to diagnose in the early period. Ectopic pregnancy is accompanied by all the signs of a normal conception - toxicosis, increased fatigue / weakness, swelling of the mammary glands, an increase in basal temperature. Fetal rejection or rupture of the fallopian tube occurs with a sharp, stutter-like pain syndrome and copious flow of blood; 
  • placental presentation (location in the area of the internal os) - takes place on the second and third trimester of gestation. Bleeding can be quite strong, threatening abortion.

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Painful periods during pregnancy

Painful periods during pregnancy - a good reason to visit an obstetrician-gynecologist. After the onset of fertilization, menstruation stops, and the detachment of the uterine lining in this case is called bleeding or spontaneous abortion.

Low levels of progesterone can cause miscarriage. In this case, the doctor prescribes drugs to save pregnancy in the early period - urozhestan, duphaston and others. The problem of miscarriage is associated with cervical insufficiency, when the uterus is not able to withstand the increasing load with the growth of the embryo and its neck begins to open. This condition is a consequence of traumatic labor and abortion, in which non-tensile scars are formed.

Pain and periods during pregnancy - the first sign of the onset of miscarriage. An abortion can be complete (all the fetal egg is out) and incomplete (only part of the fetal egg is out). In the case of incomplete abortion, medical intervention may be necessary, as the condition is dangerously renewed bleeding. At the initial stage of spontaneous abortion, in most cases it is possible to maintain a pregnancy in the hospital, therefore it is important to cause an ambulance when there is cramping and severe pain on the background of bleeding.

trusted-source[9], [10]

Scanty periods during pregnancy

At the first stage of embryo development, a vaginal discharge is possible. The process of penetration of the ovum into the uterine wall is accompanied by small ruptures of the endometrial mucosa and minor appearance of blood. Scanty periods during pregnancy are single or repeated until the embryo reaches the size of the uterus.

Weak spotting brown or red discharge, as a rule, do not cause discomfort and pass by themselves. If necessary, you can undergo ultrasound diagnostics to assess the state of the ovum.

Minor periods during pregnancy are observed in the presence of diseases - erosion, polyps, etc. The cause of the discharge may be the presence of tumors. Therefore, a gynecologist consultation is recommended when detecting any amount of blood during gestation.

trusted-source[11], [12], [13]

Strong periods during pregnancy

The onset of gestation occurs when exposed to progesterone and estrogen, increasing blood flow to the cervix, which can cause a short and not strong.

Abdominal cramps and strong periods during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, pose a threat to the life of the woman and require immediate hospitalization. One of the causes of heavy bleeding is ectopic pregnancy occurring in the fallopian tube, ovary or abdominal cavity. A fertilized egg develops to the size of the fallopian tube, and then there is an abortion or rupture of the tube (maybe without blood excretion). Sudden, acute pain when the uterine tube ruptures is replaced by loss of consciousness. It is required to deliver the woman to the hospital as soon as possible. Tubal abortion is characterized by pain and subsequent bleeding. In this situation, surgery is also necessary.

Abundant menstruation during pregnancy - a consequence of infectious diseases as a result of inflammation of the cervix. With an urgent appeal to the gynecologist, most diseases are successfully cured in the process of gestation, without causing harm to the fetus.

Full menstruation during pregnancy

Female physiology is such that the lack of fertilization leads to rejection of the inner uterine layer (endometrium), causing bleeding. Endometrium serves as a place for attachment of the embryo; therefore, in the event of conception and the appearance of blood, various disorders are discussed.

According to gynecologists, full-fledged periods during pregnancy are completely excluded. But bleeding, which is the threat of termination of pregnancy, may develop due to several factors. Discharges resembling menstruation in the amount of blood and duration, often entail the loss of a child.

Bleeding is possible in the first months after conception, when pregnancy begins immediately after the normal cycle. Recall the vitality of sperm in the female womb up to seven or eight days. Monthly during pregnancy can be triggered by the moment of the introduction of the ovum into the endometrium, damage to the cervix during intercourse, and infectious diseases.

The appearance of any discharge on any term of gestation is a necessity for medical consultation, an ultrasound scan or other diagnosis.

trusted-source[14], [15]

Pain during menstruation during pregnancy

The causes of discharge with blood after conception may not be harmless at all, and the consequences are deplorable. Diseases of the future mother (endometriosis, myoma), genetic pathologies during the development of the embryo, ectopic pregnancy, unfavorable attachment of the fetus, an overabundance of the male hormone are factors that cause menstruation during pregnancy.

Various kinds of discharge (scanty or, on the contrary, abundant), supported by pain syndrome, are an alarming sign. A timely appeal to the gynecologist will help avoid many problems with gestation.

Similar to labor, covering the entire abdomen and lower back, pain during menstruation during pregnancy - a good reason to cause an ambulance. An independent visit to the doctor can cause an abortion.

Miscarriage Criteria: 

  • stage of the threat - the severity of the lower abdomen is present, which causes the pain of the lower abdomen and in the sacrum; 
  • the onset of spontaneous abortion - bleeding, increased pain and its intensity; 
  • The state of abortion is accompanied by pain in the abdomen and lower back, often proceeding rapidly.

trusted-source[16], [17], [18], [19]

Who to contact?

Monthly sex during pregnancy

Few couples prefer intimacy during menstruation. Gynecologists warn against physical love on critical days because of the particular vulnerability of the cervix (pathogens easily penetrate the genital organ) and recommend the use of a condom. The onset of conception also imposes its own restrictions on sex: for medical contraindications, with the threat of miscarriage and multiple pregnancy, at the initial period of development of the embryo.

It is better not to practice sex during menstruation during pregnancy, since the presence of secretions in itself can be a dangerous condition, foreshadowing miscarriage, developmental pathologies, the presence of ectopic pregnancy and hormonal imbalance. Intimacy in these cases can increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

trusted-source[20], [21]

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