Everyone knows the need for regular preventive examination at the dentist and this is an indisputable fact. However, not every owner of furry pets will come up with the idea to bring his pet to the dentist. And even more so, few people thought about such a problem as tartar in cats. The lifestyle of domestic cats is very different from that of their wild relatives. In the natural habitat, tartar in cats is almost not formed due to the nature of the diet - solid natural food prevents the formation of tartar, thus naturally cleaning the teeth of the animal.
The situation is different with domestic cats, the main diet of which consists of soft "refined" fodder. The convenience of using such feeds is obvious - their storage does not require special conditions, it is enough just to fill the bowl of the pet. But, unfortunately, the usability is not always commensurate with the possible consequences. Practice shows that tartar in cats at home is formed precisely because of the use of soft fodder and the lack of natural food.
Causes of calculus formation in cats
The tartar in cats is formed in the form of calcareous deposits, as a result of the vital activity of various microorganisms. Externally, the tartar resembles a yellowish plaque of dense consistency and hard to the touch. The formation of yellowish plaque begins with a young age of the animal, at the initial stage the dental plaque consists of saliva and bacteria remaining on the surface of the teeth. Over time, this film thickens, becomes firm, acquires a brown shade and concentrates on the canines and back teeth, increasing in size. Dental plaque in cats is a whole colony of microbes, the vital activity of which contributes to favorable conditions for the chemical reactions of the saliva of animal and calcium, which subsequently form tartar. In addition to unhygienic appearance, dental plaque in cats provokes inflammation of the gums and the appearance of periodontitis.
The main reasons for the occurrence of dental plaque in cats are, first of all, the "refined" diet of the animal, consisting mainly of soft food, improper salt metabolism in the animal's body, poor hygiene of the animal's oral cavity, and dislocation of the dentition.
Symptoms of calculus in cats
To detect the symptoms of tartar in cats is not at all difficult and make it a state of every owner of his fluffy pet. Daily observations and examinations of the oral cavity of the animal will accurately tell you about the existing problem, if any.
Specialists distinguish such basic symptoms of tartar in cats:
unpleasant odor from the oral cavity of the animal;
yellow-brown plaque at the base of the teeth;
atypical behavior when eating, when pain occurs.
When examining the oral cavity of the animal, it is necessary to carefully examine the gums and possible growths and formations, for the presence of tumors of the mucous membrane. Discovered similar symptoms of tartar in cats are the direct cause of an urgent visit to a veterinarian, for the purpose of detailed examination, diagnosis of the disease and treatment course for your furry pet.
Treatment of tartar in cats
Treatment of tartar in cats is the elementary removal of them from the surface of the dentition. This procedure is quite painful for the animal and is carried out using general anesthesia. Depending on the degree of tartar can last about an hour, and in some cases even more. The age of the animal determines a number of preparatory measures preceding the removal of tartar. So, for a young cat, aged up to a year and a half or two, it is enough to have a one-day hunger strike before the procedure for removing tartar.
Pets older than three years old or with diagnoses of chronic diseases undergo a standard preparatory procedure for anesthesia. This procedure includes, first of all, laboratory tests, for negative reactions to anesthesia, general clinical examination of the animal. The process of removing tartar from cats is such a stage. The first stage consists in machining the surface of the dentition with the use of a dental instrument. Ultrasonic cleaning is used in the second stage of the process of removing tartar. And finishes the procedure - the final grinding and polishing the dentition with cleaning pastes.
Carrying out of qualitative treatment of a tartar in cats is possible only in conditions of clinic. Removal of calculus in the home is not possible, since the procedure is quite painful and it is necessary to have a specialist to avoid complications. And the owners of furry pets should conduct regular preventive measures aimed at preventing the formation of tartar from their pet.
Removal of tartar in cats
Removal of calculus in cats has a number of characteristic features. Tartar is the next form of mineralized plaque formed as a result of the chemical reaction of the products of vital activity of microorganisms in the saliva of an animal with potassium phosphates. At the site of localization, there are supragingival and subgingival dental calculi.
Supragingival dental calculi are localized on the surface of the teeth directly above the gum margin, has a yellowish-brown hue, its surface is rough, contributing to the layering of new growths and contributes to the increase in the size of tartar. The inner side of the gums, cheeks and mucous membrane bordering on the dental calculus, is constantly inflamed due to systematic trauma of this stone.
Subgingival dental calculi are localized closer to the roots of the teeth or in the gingival pockets and slightly protrudes beyond the crown. Under the gingival gums of a dark green hue and more solid than the supragingival stones. It has been scientifically proven that subgingival calculus forms in connection with the deviation of the biochemical composition of blood serum, and supragingival calculus is formed by the chemical reaction of saliva and potassium phosphate.
As a rule, with time, dental stones of both types provoke gum exfoliation from the roots of the teeth and as a result inflammation of the gums and infection. There are cases when supragingival and subgingival stones fused. This situation causes not only inflammation in the gums but also in the bone tissue of the teeth until they fall out. There is also a high probability of osteomyelitis and ulcerative process of the jawbone. It is for this reason that the removal of tartar in cats is a vitally necessary procedure of a systematic nature.
Cleaning of tartar in cats
Cleaning of tartar in cats is done by veterinarians. At home, it is almost impossible to clean the tartar. First, the skills and practice of a professional are needed, and secondly, special tools and equipment are needed. Third, anesthesia is required to perform the procedure. In clinical conditions, tartar cleaning is performed in two ways - mechanical and ultrasonic.
The mechanical method is widely used, in view of its availability and cheapness. However, there is a significant drawback of this method, consisting in the likelihood of a gum or tooth injury, in the case of an inadvertent pressing by the instrument.
The ultrasonic method is influenced by fluctuations of the equipment on dental calculi, which subsequently exfoliate from the teeth and are destroyed. This method is more effective and safer than removing the tartar by hand. After removal of dental layers in both methods, de-processing of the oral cavity of the animal is provided. In some cases, if necessary, a course of immunostimulants or antibiotics is prescribed.
Prophylaxis of calculus in cats
Prophylaxis of calculus in cats at home is the systematic cleaning of the oral cavity of the animal. Almost all pets do not share the opinion about the need for this procedure, and even more, are absolutely not amenable to carrying out this manipulation. It is advisable to teach to clean the oral cavity from the age of the kitten, when protective instincts are not yet formed. It is only natural that the training of your pet to clean the oral cavity is a long process, requiring great patience. At present, a wide range of special toothpastes are available in pet stores, having a pleasant taste for animals and absolutely harmless if swallowed accidentally. Cleaning of the mouth is done using a brush or with the help of an index finger.
One of the most popular preventive methods that can successfully combat the formation of tartar in cats is the use of special mixtures in the diet of the animal, which include dietary fiber having a firmer consistency and fibrous network structure. Granules of such food, when biting, do not crumble at once, but are structured into a fibrous network, which performs the function of cleaning the surface of the dentition. Other feed mixtures contain polyphosphates, which, when eaten, are deposited on the teeth and thus prevent the formation of plaque. Of course, the prevention of tartar in cats is not limited to the use of special foods and it will be a mistake to call these artificial feed mixtures a panacea, because they consist of synthetic components and their use can be only a small part of preventive measures.
The main prevention, of course, is systematic visits to the veterinarian and hygiene of the oral cavity of your fluffy pet. A little patience and systemic preventive measures without a doubt will make your pet's teeth healthy and strong!
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